ټېن

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Tin نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Tin,  50Sn
Sn-Alpha-Beta.jpg
left: white, beta, β; right: gray, alpha, α
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈtɪn/
TIN
Allotropes alpha, α (gray); beta, β (white)
Appearance silvery-white (beta, β) or gray (alpha, α)
Tin په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ge

Sn

Pb
indiumtinantimony
اټومي شمیره (Z) 50
گروپ, پیریود group 14 (carbon group), period 5
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 505.08 K ​(231.93 °C, ​449.47 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2875 K ​(2602 °C, ​4716 °F)
Density near r.t. white, β: 7.265 g/cm3
gray, α: 5.769 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.99 g/cm3
Heat of fusion white, β: 7.03 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization white, β: 296.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity white, β: 27.112 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3,[۲] 2, 1,[۳] −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.96
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 708.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1411.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2943.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 217 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuretetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for tin

white (β)
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for tin

gray (α)
Speed of sound thin rod 2730 m/s (at r.t.) (rolled)
Thermal expansion 22.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 66.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 115 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering gray: diamagnetic[۴]
white (β): paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) (white) +3.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۵]
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 18 GPa
Bulk modulus 58 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.36
Brinell hardness 50–440 MPa
CAS Number 7440-31-5
History
Discovery around 3500 BC
Main isotopes of tin
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
112Sn 0.97% stable
114Sn 0.66% stable
115Sn 0.34% stable
116Sn 14.54% stable
117Sn 7.68% stable
118Sn 24.22% stable
119Sn 8.59% stable
120Sn 32.58% stable
122Sn 4.63% stable
124Sn 5.79% stable
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 126Sb
| references | in Wikidata

ټېن (په انگرېزي: Tin) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Sn سمبول او ۵۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . SnH3. NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institure of Standards and Technology
  3. . HSn. NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of Standards and Technology
  4. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.