بيرېليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Beryllium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Beryllium,  4Be
Be-140g.png
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /bəˈrɪliəm/
bə-RIL-ee-əm
Appearance white-gray metallic
Beryllium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Be

Mg
lithiumberylliumboron
اټومي شمیره (Z) 4
گروپ, پیریود group 2 (alkaline earth metals), period 2
بلاک s-block
Element category   alkaline earth metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [He] 2s2
Electrons per shell
2, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2742 K ​(2469 °C, ​4476 °F)
Density near r.t. 1.85 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.690 g/cm3
Critical point 5205 K,  MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion 12.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 292 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 16.443 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1462 1608 1791 2023 2327 2742
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +2, +1[۲] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.57
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1757.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 14,848.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 112 pm
Covalent radius 96±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 153 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for beryllium
Speed of sound thin rod 12,890 m/s (at r.t.)[۳]
Thermal expansion 11.3 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 200 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 36 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −9.0·10−6 cm3/mol[۴]
Young's modulus 287 GPa
Shear modulus 132 GPa
Bulk modulus 130 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.032
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1670 MPa
Brinell hardness 590–1320 MPa
CAS Number 7440-41-7
History
Discovery Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1798)
First isolation Friedrich Wöhler & Antoine Bussy (1828)
Main isotopes of beryllium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

9Be 100% stable
10Be trace 1.39×106 y β 10B
| references | in Wikidata

بيرېليوم (په انگرېزي: Beryllium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Be سمبول او ۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . Beryllium: Beryllium(I) Hydride compound data. bernath.uwaterloo.ca
  3. کينډۍ:RubberBible92nd
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.