کاربون

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Carbon نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Carbon,  6C
Graphite-and-diamond-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) and diamond (right), the two most well-known allotropes of carbon
Carbon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of carbon
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈkɑrbən/
KAR-bən
Allotropes graphite, diamond
Appearance graphite: black
diamond: clear
Carbon په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
اټومي شمیره (Z) 6
گروپ, پیریود group 14 (carbon group), period 2
بلاک p-block
Element category   polyatomic nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [12.0096, 12.0116][۱]
  • conventional: 12.011
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
Sublimation point 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density near r.t. amorphous: 1.8–2.1 g/cm3[۲]
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
Triple point 4600 K, ​10,800 kPa[۳][۴]
Heat of fusion graphite: 117 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity graphite: 8.517 J/(mol·K)
diamond: 6.155 J/(mol·K)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +4, +3,[۵] +2, +1,[۶] 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[۷] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1086.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2352.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 4620.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius sp3: 77 pm
sp2: 73 pm
sp: 69 pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure graphite: ​simple hexagonal
Simple hexagonal crystal structure for graphite: carbon

(black)
Crystal structure diamond: ​face-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for diamond: carbon

(clear)
Speed of sound thin rod diamond: 18,350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion diamond: 0.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۸]
د تودوخې تېرېدنه graphite: 119–165 W/(m·K)
diamond: 900–2300 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity graphite: 7.837 µΩ·m[۹]
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۱۰]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −5.9·10−6 (graph.) cm3/mol[۱۱]
Young's modulus diamond: 1050 GPa[۸]
Shear modulus diamond: 478 GPa[۸]
Bulk modulus diamond: 442 GPa[۸]
Poisson ratio diamond: 0.1[۸]
Mohs hardness graphite: 1–2
diamond: 10
CAS Number 7440-44-0
History
Discovery Egyptians and Sumerians[۱۲] (3750 BCE)
Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier[۱۳] (1789)
Main isotopes of carbon
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references | in Wikidata

کاربون (په انگرېزي: Carbon) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د C سمبول او ۶ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دسه التروپ

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  3. Haaland, D (1976). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon"]. Carbon 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  4. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)"]. Carbon 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  5. کينډۍ:Citeweb
  6. کينډۍ:Citeweb
  7. کينډۍ:Citeweb
  8. ۸٫۰ ۸٫۱ ۸٫۲ ۸٫۳ ۸٫۴ Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  9. . Material Properties- Misc Materials.
  10. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  11. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  12. . History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky. Caer.uky.edu
  13. Senese, Fred (په 2000-09-09 کې). Who discovered carbon?. Frostburg State University

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