ليتيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Lithium,  3Li
Lithium paraffin.jpg
Lithium floating in oil
Spectrum Lines of Li.png
Spectral lines of lithium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈlɪθiəm/
LI-thee-əm
Appearance silvery-white
Lithium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
H

Li

Na
heliumlithiumberyllium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 3
گروپ, پیریود group 1 (alkali metals), period 2
بلاک s-block
Element category   alkali metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [6.938, 6.997][۱]
  • conventional: 6.94
Electron configuration [He] 2s1
Electrons per shell
2, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 453.65 K ​(180.50 °C, ​356.90 °F)
يشنا ټکی 1603 K ​(1330 °C, ​2426 °F)
Density near r.t. 0.534 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 0.512 g/cm3
Critical point 3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion 3.00 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 136 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.860 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.98
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 152 pm
Covalent radius 128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 182 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for lithium
Speed of sound thin rod 6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 46 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 84.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 92.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +14.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۲]
Young's modulus 4.9 GPa
Shear modulus 4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 11 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.6
Brinell hardness 5 MPa
CAS Number 7439-93-2
History
Discovery Johan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolation William Thomas Brande (1821)
Main isotopes of lithium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
6Li 5% stable
7Li 95% stable
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.
| references | in Wikidata

ليتيوم (په انگرېزي: Lithium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Li سمبول او ۳ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

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مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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