ليتيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Lithium,  3Li
Lithium paraffin.jpg
Lithium floating in oil
Spectrum Lines of Li.png
Spectral lines of lithium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈlɪθiəm/
LI-thee-əm
Appearancesilvery-white
Lithium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
H

Li

Na
heliumlithiumberyllium
اټومي شمیره (Z)3
گروپ, پیریودgroup 1 (alkali metals), period 2
بلاکs-block
Element category  alkali metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [6.938, 6.997][۱]
  • conventional: 6.94
Electron configuration[He] 2s1
Electrons per shell
2, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى453.65 K ​(180.50 °C, ​356.90 °F)
يشنا ټکی1603 K ​(1330 °C, ​2426 °F)
Density near r.t.0.534 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.0.512 g/cm3
Critical point3220 K, 67 MPa (extrapolated)
Heat of fusion3.00 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization136 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.860 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 797 885 995 1144 1337 1610
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 0.98
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 520.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 7298.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 11815.0 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 152 pm
Covalent radius128±7 pm
Van der Waals radius182 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for lithium
Speed of sound thin rod6000 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion46 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه84.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity92.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+14.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۲]
Young's modulus4.9 GPa
Shear modulus4.2 GPa
Bulk modulus11 GPa
Mohs hardness0.6
Brinell hardness5 MPa
CAS Number7439-93-2
History
DiscoveryJohan August Arfwedson (1817)
First isolationWilliam Thomas Brande (1821)
Main isotopes of lithium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
6Li 5% stable
7Li 95% stable
6Li content may be as low as 3.75% in
natural samples. 7Li would therefore
have a content of up to 96.25%.
| references | in Wikidata

ليتيوم (په انگرېزي: Lithium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Li سمبول او ۳ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

طبقه بندي,کیمیاوي سیسټم,لقب,نومول شوی ولټاژ,



تاریخچه[سمول]

عنصر په ځمکه کې په 1817 کې د جوهان اګست ارفیوډسن (1792-1841) لخوا په سټاکهولم کې کشف شو کله چې هغه د پیټالیټ په اړه تحقیق وکړ ، یو له لومړني لیتیم منرالونو څخه چې کشف شوی


مرکبات[سمول]

لیتیم,اکسایډ,پولیمایډز,پوتاشیم.


د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

لیتیم ډیری صنعتي کارونې لري. دا شیشې ، سیرامیک ، درملو ، او المونیم او مګنیزیم الیاژونو ته کارول کیږی


سرچينې[سمول]

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  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.