الومېنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Aluminium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Aluminium,  13Al
Aluminium-4.jpg
Aluminum Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of aluminium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation UK /ˌæljʊˈmɪniəm/
AL-YUU-MIN-EE-əm
US /əˈljmɪnəm/
Ə-LEW-MIN-əm
Alternative name aluminum (US, informal)
Appearance silvery gray metallic
Aluminium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
B

Al

Ga
magnesiumaluminiumsilicon
اټومي شمیره (Z) 13
گروپ, پیریود group 13 (boron group), period 3
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal, sometimes considered a metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 933.47 K ​(660.32 °C, ​1220.58 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2743 K ​(2470 °C, ​4478 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.70 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.375 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 10.71 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 284 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.20 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1482 1632 1817 2054 2364 2790
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +3, +2,[۲] +1[۳], −1, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.61
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 577.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1816.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2744.8 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 143 pm
Covalent radius 121±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 184 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for aluminium
Speed of sound thin rod (rolled) 5000 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 23.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 237 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 28.2 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +16.5·10−6 cm3/mol
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bulk modulus 76 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Mohs hardness 2.75
Vickers hardness 160–350 MPa
Brinell hardness 160–550 MPa
CAS Number 7429-90-5
History
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier[۵] (1787)
Discovery and first isolation Hans Christian Ørsted[۶] (1825)
Named by Humphry Davy[۵] (1807)
Main isotopes of aluminium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay3

27Al 100% stable
| references | in Wikidata

الومېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Aluminium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Al سمبول او ۱۳ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Aluminium monoxide
  3. Aluminium iodide
  4. Lide, D. R. (2000). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics] (81st ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  5. ۵٫۰ ۵٫۱ . Aluminum. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  6. . 13 Aluminium. Elements.vanderkrogt.net

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.