توليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Thulium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Thulium,  69Tm
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθjuːliəm/ or /ˈθliəm/
THEW-lee-əm or THOO-lee-əm
Appearancesilvery gray
Thulium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
اټومي شمیره (Z)69
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1818 K ​(1545 °C, ​2813 °F)
يشنا ټکی2223 K ​(1950 °C, ​3542 °F)
Density near r.t.9.32 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.8.56 g/cm3
Heat of fusion16.84 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization191 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states2, 3 ​(a basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.25
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 596.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1160 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2285 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for thulium
Thermal expansionpoly: 13.3 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه16.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivitypoly: 676 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic (at 300 K)
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+25,500·10−6 cm3/mol (291 K)[۲]
Young's modulus74.0 GPa
Shear modulus30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio0.213
Vickers hardness470–650 MPa
Brinell hardness470–900 MPa
CAS Number7440-30-4
History
Namingafter Thule, a mythical region in Scandinavia
Discovery and first isolationPer Teodor Cleve (1879)
Main isotopes of thulium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 168Er
169Tm 100% stable
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 171Yb
| references | in Wikidata

توليوم (په انگرېزي: Thulium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Tm سمبول او ۶۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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