توليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Thulium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Thulium,  69Tm
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθjuːliəm/ or /ˈθliəm/
THEW-lee-əm or THOO-lee-əm
Appearance silvery gray
Thulium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 69
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1818 K ​(1545 °C, ​2813 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2223 K ​(1950 °C, ​3542 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.32 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.56 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 16.84 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 191 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 2, 3 ​(a basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.25
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 596.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1160 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2285 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for thulium
Thermal expansion poly: 13.3 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 16.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity poly: 676 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic (at 300 K)
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +25,500·10−6 cm3/mol (291 K)[۲]
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers hardness 470–650 MPa
Brinell hardness 470–900 MPa
CAS Number 7440-30-4
History
Naming after Thule, a mythical region in Scandinavia
Discovery and first isolation Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
Main isotopes of thulium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 168Er
169Tm 100% stable
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 171Yb
| references | in Wikidata

توليوم (په انگرېزي: Thulium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Tm سمبول او ۶۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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