بورون

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Boron,  5B
Boron R105.jpg
boron (β-rhombohedral)[۱]
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbɔərɒn/
Allotropes α-, β-rhombohedral, β-tetragonal (and more)
Appearance black-brown
Boron په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


B

Al
berylliumboroncarbon
اټومي شمیره (Z) 5
گروپ, پیریود group 13 (boron group), period 2
بلاک p-block
Element category   metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [10.806, 10.821][۲]
  • conventional: 10.81
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Electrons per shell
2, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F)
Density when liquid, at m.p. 2.08 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 508 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 11.087 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2348 2562 2822 3141 3545 4072
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −5[۳][۴] ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.04
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 90 pm
Covalent radius 84±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 192 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for boron
Speed of sound thin rod 16,200 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion β form: 5–7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)[۵]
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 27.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity ~106 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۶]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −6.7·10−6 cm3/mol[۷]
Mohs hardness ~9.5
CAS Number 7440-42-8
History
Discovery Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard[۸] (30 June 1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy[۹] (9 July 1808)
Main isotopes of boron
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
10B 20% stable[۱۰]
11B 80% stable[۱۰]
10B content may be as low as 19.1% and as high as 20.3% in natural samples. 11B is the remainder in such cases.[۱۱]
| references | in Wikidata

بورون (په انگرېزي: Boron) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د B سمبول او ۵ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
  2. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  3. Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 170: 82. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058. Bibcode1995JMoSp.170...82Z. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/125.pdf. 
  4. کينډۍ:Cite article
  5. Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron"]. High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57. 
  6. Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. http://web.archive.org/web/20120112012253/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  7. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  8. Gay Lussac, J.L.; Thenard, L.J. (1808). "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique". Annales de chimie 68: 169–174. http://books.google.com/books?id=e6Aw616K5ysC&pg=PA169. 
  9. Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 99: 39–104. doi:10.1098/rstl.1809.0005. http://books.google.com/books?id=gpwEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA140. 
  10. ۱۰٫۰ ۱۰٫۱ . Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements. National Institute of Standards and Technology
  11. Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method"]. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219. 

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