جرمانيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2×3 cm) polycrystalline block of germanium with uneven cleaved surfaces
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ərˈmniəm/
jər-MAY-nee-əm
Appearance grayish-white
Germanium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
اټومي شمیره (Z) 32
گروپ, پیریود group 14 (carbon group), period 4
بلاک p-block
Element category   metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.323 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.60 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.01
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 762 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1537.5 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3302.1 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed of sound thin rod 5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Band gap 0.67 eV (at 300 K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −76.84·10−6 cm3/mol[۳]
Young's modulus 103 GPa[۴]
Shear modulus 41 GPa[۴]
Bulk modulus 75 GPa[۴]
Poisson ratio 0.26[۴]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS Number 7440-56-4
History
Naming after Germany, homeland of the discoverer
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Main isotopes of germanium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε 68Ga
70Ge 20.52% stable
71Ge syn 11.3 d ε 71Ga
72Ge 27.45% stable
73Ge 7.76% stable
74Ge 36.52% stable
76Ge 7.75% 1.78×1021 y ββ 76Se
| references | in Wikidata

جرمانيوم (په انگرېزي: Germanium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ge سمبول او ۳۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ ۴٫۲ ۴٫۳ . Properties of Germanium. Ioffe Institute

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