پولونيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Polonium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Polonium,  84Po
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /poʊ-ˈlniəm/
po-LOH-nee-əm
Allotropes α, β
Appearance silvery
Polonium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Te

Po

Lv
bismuthpoloniumastatine
اټومي شمیره (Z) 84
گروپ, پیریود group 16 (chalcogens), period 6
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal, but this status is disputed
Mass number 209 (most stable isotope)
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 527 K ​(254 °C, ​489 °F)
يشنا ټکی 1235 K ​(962 °C, ​1764 °F)
Density near r.t. alpha: 9.196 g/cm3
beta: 9.398 g/cm3
Heat of fusion ca. 13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 102.91 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.4 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) (846) 1003 1236
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5,[۱] 4, 2, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 812.1 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 168 pm
Covalent radius 140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 197 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurecubic
Cubic crystal structure for polonium

α-Po
Crystal structurerhombohedral
Rhombohedral crystal structure for polonium

β-Po
Thermal expansion 23.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 20 W/(m·K) (?)
Electrical resistivity α: 0.40 µΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
CAS Number 7440-08-6
History
Naming after Polonia, Latin for Poland, homeland of Marie Curie
Discovery Pierre and Marie Curie (1898)
First isolation Willy Marckwald (1902)
Main isotopes of polonium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

210Po trace 138.376 d α 206Pb
| references | in Wikidata

پولونيوم (په انگرېزي: Polonium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Po سمبول او ۸۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Thayer, John S. (2010). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heavier Main Group Elements]. pp. 78. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9975-5_2. 

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