نايوبيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Niobium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Niobium,  41Nb
A lump of gray shining crystals with hexagonal facetting
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /nˈbiəm/
ny-OH-bee-əm
Alternative name columbium
Appearance gray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Niobium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
V

Nb

Ta
zirconiumniobiummolybdenum
اټومي شمیره (Z) 41
گروپ, پیریود group 5, period 5
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F)
يشنا ټکی 5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.60 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2942 3207 3524 3910 4393 5013
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.6
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 652.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1380 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2416 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 146 pm
Covalent radius 164±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Cubic body-centered crystal structure for niobium
Speed of sound thin rod 3480 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 7.3 µm/(m·K)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 53.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 152 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Young's modulus 105 GPa
Shear modulus 38 GPa
Bulk modulus 170 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.40
Mohs hardness 6.0
Vickers hardness 870–1320 MPa
Brinell hardness 735–2450 MPa
CAS Number 7440-03-1
History
Naming after Niobe in Greek mythology, daughter of Tantalus (tantalum)
Discovery Charles Hatchett (1801)
First isolation Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (1864)
Recognized as a distinct element by Heinrich Rose (1844)
Main isotopes of niobium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
90Nb syn 15 h β+ 90Zr
91Nb syn 680 y ε 91Zr
91mNb syn 61 d IT 91Nb

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

93Nb 100% stable
93mNb syn 16 y IT 93Nb

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

95mNb syn 4 d IT 95Nb
96Nb syn 24 h β 96Mo
| references | in Wikidata

نايوبيوم (په انگرېزي: Niobium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Nb سمبول او ۴۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 

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