نايوبيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Niobium,  41Nb
A lump of gray shining crystals with hexagonal facetting
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /nˈbiəm/
ny-OH-bee-əm
Alternative namecolumbium
Appearancegray metallic, bluish when oxidized
Niobium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
V

Nb

Ta
zirconiumniobiummolybdenum
اټومي شمیره (Z)41
گروپ, پیریودgroup 5, period 5
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2750 K ​(2477 °C, ​4491 °F)
يشنا ټکی5017 K ​(4744 °C, ​8571 °F)
Density near r.t.8.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization689.9 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.60 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2942 3207 3524 3910 4393 5013
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.6
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 652.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1380 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2416 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 146 pm
Covalent radius164±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Cubic body-centered crystal structure for niobium
Speed of sound thin rod3480 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion7.3 µm/(m·K)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه53.7 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity152 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Young's modulus105 GPa
Shear modulus38 GPa
Bulk modulus170 GPa
Poisson ratio0.40
Mohs hardness6.0
Vickers hardness870–1320 MPa
Brinell hardness735–2450 MPa
CAS Number7440-03-1
History
Namingafter Niobe in Greek mythology, daughter of Tantalus (tantalum)
DiscoveryCharles Hatchett (1801)
First isolationChristian Wilhelm Blomstrand (1864)
Recognized as a distinct element byHeinrich Rose (1844)
Main isotopes of niobium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
90Nb syn 15 h β+ 90Zr
91Nb syn 680 y ε 91Zr
91mNb syn 61 d IT 91Nb

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

93Nb 100% stable
93mNb syn 16 y IT 93Nb

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

95mNb syn 4 d IT 95Nb
96Nb syn 24 h β 96Mo
| references | in Wikidata

نايوبيوم (په انگرېزي: Niobium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Nb سمبول او ۴۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

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د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 

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