ټونگسټن

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Tungsten نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Tungsten,  74W
Wolfram evaporated crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈtʌŋstən/; /ˈwʊlfrəm/
TUNG-stən; WUUL-frəm
Alternative name wolfram
Appearance grayish white, lustrous
Tungsten په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Mo

W

Sg
tantalumtungstenrhenium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 74
گروپ, پیریود group 6, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2[۲]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 3695 K ​(3422 °C, ​6192 °F)
يشنا ټکی 6203 K ​(5930 °C, ​10706 °F)
Density near r.t. 19.25 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 17.6 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 52.31 kJ/mol[۳][۴]
Heat of vaporization 774 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.27 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 3477 3773 4137 4579 5127 5823
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −4 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.36
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 770 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1700 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius 162±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for tungsten
Speed of sound thin rod 4620 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)
Thermal expansion 4.5 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 173 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 52.8 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۵]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +59.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۶]
Young's modulus 411 GPa
Shear modulus 161 GPa
Bulk modulus 310 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.28
Mohs hardness 7.5
Vickers hardness 3430–4600 MPa
Brinell hardness 2000–4000 MPa
CAS Number 7440-33-7
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1781)
First isolation Juan José Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar (1783)
Named by Torbern Bergman (1781)
Main isotopes of tungsten
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
180W 0.12% 1.8×1018 y α 176Hf
181W syn 121.2 d ε 181Ta
182W 26.50% stable
183W 14.31% stable
184W 30.64% stable
185W syn 75.1 d β 185Re
186W 28.43% stable
| references | in Wikidata

ټونگسټن (په انگرېزي: Tungsten) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د W سمبول او v۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. کينډۍ:Citeweb
  3. کينډۍ:CRC90
  4. کينډۍ:Cite arXiv
  5. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  6. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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