مگنېزيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Magnesium,  12Mg
CSIRO ScienceImage 2893 Crystalised magnesium.jpg
Magnesium Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of magnesium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /mæɡˈnziəm/
mag-NEE-zee-əm
Appearanceshiny grey solid
Magnesium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Be

Mg

Ca
sodiummagnesiumaluminium
اټومي شمیره (Z)12
گروپ, پیریودgroup 2 (alkaline earth metals), period 3
بلاکs-block
Element category  alkaline earth metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [24.304, 24.307][۱]
  • conventional: 24.305
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى923 K ​(650 °C, ​1202 °F)
يشنا ټکی1363 K ​(1091 °C, ​1994 °F)
Density near r.t.1.738 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.1.584 g/cm3
Heat of fusion8.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization128 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.869 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 701 773 861 971 1132 1361
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+2, +1[۲] ​(a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.31
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 737.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1450.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 7732.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius141±7 pm
Van der Waals radius173 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for magnesium
Speed of sound thin rod4940 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)
Thermal expansion24.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه156 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity43.9 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+13.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۳]
Young's modulus45 GPa
Shear modulus17 GPa
Bulk modulus45 GPa
Poisson ratio0.290
Mohs hardness1–2.5
Brinell hardness44–260 MPa
CAS Number7439-95-4
History
Namingafter Magnesia, Greece
DiscoveryJoseph Black (1755)
First isolationHumphry Davy (1808)
Main isotopes of magnesium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
24Mg 79.0% stable
25Mg 10.0% stable
26Mg 11.0% stable
| references | in Wikidata

مگنېزيوم (په انگرېزي: Magnesium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Mg سمبول او ۱۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

مګنیزیم د ساختماني فلزاتو ترټولو سپک دی. د 1.74g/cm3 کثافت سره ، دا د المونیم څخه 30 l سپک او د فولادو په پرتله 70 l سپک دی.


تاریخچه[سمول]

مګنیزیم لومړی د همفري ډیوی ، یو انګلیسي کیمیا پوه لخوا د مخلوط الیکټرولوز له لارې جلا شوی وه


مرکبات[سمول]

د میګنیشیم کاربونیټ یا مګنیزیم هایدروکسایډ سوځول د اکسیجن مرکب مګنیزیم آکسایډ تولیدوي.


د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

مګنیزیم په هغه محصولاتو کې کارول کیږي چې د سپک وزن څخه ګټه پورته کوي ، لکه د موټر څوکۍ ، سامان ، لیپ ټاپ ، کیمرې او د بریښنا وسیلې.


سرچينې[سمول]

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  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H.; Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride". Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. doi:10.1086/163620. Bibcode1985ApJ...298..375B. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/24.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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