سکېنډيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Scandium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Scandium,  21Sc
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈskændiəm/
SKAN-dee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Scandium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Sc

Y
calciumscandiumtitanium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 21
گروپ, پیریود group 3, period 4
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1814 K ​(1541 °C, ​2806 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3109 K ​(2836 °C, ​5136 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.985 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.80 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 14.1 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 332.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2,[۲] 1[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.36
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 633.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1235.0 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2388.6 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 162 pm
Covalent radius 170±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for scandium
Thermal expansion α, poly: 10.2 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 15.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity α, poly: 562 nΩ·m (at r.t., calculated)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +315.0·10−6 cm3/mol (292 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 74.4 GPa
Shear modulus 29.1 GPa
Bulk modulus 56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.279
Brinell hardness 736–1200 MPa
CAS Number 7440-20-2
History
Naming after Scandinavia
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery and first isolation Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
Main isotopes of scandium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay3

45Sc 100% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

| references | in Wikidata

سکېنډيوم (په انگرېزي: Scandium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Sc سمبول او ۲۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. McGuire, Joseph C.; Kempter, Charles P. (1960). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Preparation and Properties of Scandium Dihydride"]. Journal of Chemical Physics 33: 1584–1585. doi:10.1063/1.1731452. Bibcode1960JChPh..33.1584M. 
  3. Smith, R. E. (1973). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Diatomic Hydride and Deuteride Spectra of the Second Row Transition Metals"]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 332 (1588): 113–127. doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0015. Bibcode1973RSPSA.332..113S. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.