سېلېنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Selenium,  34Se
SeBlackRed.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /sɪˈlniəm/
SI-LEE-NEE-əm
Appearanceblack, red, and gray (not pictured) allotropes
Selenium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
S

Se

Te
arsenicseleniumbromine
اټومي شمیره (Z)34
گروپ, پیریودgroup 16 (chalcogens), period 4
بلاکp-block
Element category  polyatomic nonmetal, sometimes considered a metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 6
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى494 K ​(221 °C, ​430 °F)
يشنا ټکی958 K ​(685 °C, ​1265 °F)
Density near r.t.gray: 4.81 g/cm3
alpha: 4.39 g/cm3
vitreous: 4.28 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.3.99 g/cm3
Critical point1766 K, 27.2 MPa
Heat of fusiongray: 6.69 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization95.48 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.363 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 500 552 617 704 813 958
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,[۲] −1, −2 ​(a strongly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 941.0 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2045 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2973.7 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 120 pm
Covalent radius120±4 pm
Van der Waals radius190 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for selenium
Speed of sound thin rod3350 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionamorphous: 37 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنهamorphous: 0.519 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−25.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus10 GPa
Shear modulus3.7 GPa
Bulk modulus8.3 GPa
Poisson ratio0.33
Mohs hardness2.0
Brinell hardness736 MPa
CAS Number7782-49-2
History
Namingafter Selene, Greek goddess of the moon
Discovery and first isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius and Johann Gottlieb Gahn (1817)
Main isotopes of selenium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

74Se 0.86% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

76Se 9.23% stable
77Se 7.60% stable
78Se 23.69% stable
79Se trace 3.27×105 y β 79Br
80Se 49.80% stable
82Se 8.82% 1.08×1020 y ββ 82Kr
| references | in Wikidata

سېلېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Selenium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Se سمبول او ۳۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. کينډۍ:Greenwood&Earnshaw
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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