گاډولينيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Gadolinium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Gadolinium,  64Gd
Gadolinium-4.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˌɡædəˈlɪniəm/
GAD-ə-LIN-ee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Gadolinium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 64
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.4 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 10.05 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 37.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 593.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1170 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1990 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius 196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for gadolinium
Speed of sound thin rod 2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion α poly: 9.4 µm/(m·K) (at 100 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity α, poly: 1.310 µΩ·m
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at 293.4 K
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +755,000.0·10−6 cm3/mol (300.6 K)[۲]
Young's modulus α form: 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus α form: 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus α form: 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: 0.259
Vickers hardness 510–950 MPa
CAS Number 7440-54-2
History
Naming after the mineral Gadolinite (itself named after Johan Gadolin)
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Main isotopes of gadolinium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
148Gd syn 75 y α 144Sm
150Gd syn 1.8×106 y α 146Sm
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% stable
155Gd 14.80% stable
156Gd 20.47% stable
157Gd 15.65% stable
158Gd 24.84% stable
160Gd 21.86% stable
| references | in Wikidata

گاډولينيوم (په انگرېزي: Gadolinium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Gd سمبول او ۶۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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