گاډولينيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Gadolinium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Gadolinium,  64Gd
Gadolinium-4.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˌɡædəˈlɪniəm/
GAD-ə-LIN-ee-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Gadolinium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
اټومي شمیره (Z)64
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
يشنا ټکی3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Density near r.t.7.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.7.4 g/cm3
Heat of fusion10.05 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity37.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states1, 2, 3 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 593.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1170 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1990 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for gadolinium
Speed of sound thin rod2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα poly: 9.4 µm/(m·K) (at 100 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 1.310 µΩ·m
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at 293.4 K
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+755,000.0·10−6 cm3/mol (300.6 K)[۲]
Young's modulusα form: 54.8 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.259
Vickers hardness510–950 MPa
CAS Number7440-54-2
History
Namingafter the mineral Gadolinite (itself named after Johan Gadolin)
DiscoveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Main isotopes of gadolinium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
148Gd syn 75 y α 144Sm
150Gd syn 1.8×106 y α 146Sm
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% stable
155Gd 14.80% stable
156Gd 20.47% stable
157Gd 15.65% stable
158Gd 24.84% stable
160Gd 21.86% stable
| references | in Wikidata

گاډولينيوم (په انگرېزي: Gadolinium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Gd سمبول او ۶۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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