لانتېنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Lanthanum نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Lanthanum,  57La
Lanthanum-2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈlænθənəm/
Appearancesilvery white
Lanthanum په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Y

La

Ac
bariumlanthanumcerium
اټومي شمیره (Z)57
گروپ, پیریودgroup 3, period 6
بلاکd-block
Element category  lanthanide, sometimes considered a transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 9, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1193 K ​(920 °C, ​1688 °F)
يشنا ټکی3737 K ​(3464 °C, ​6267 °F)
Density near r.t.6.162 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.5.94 g/cm3
Heat of fusion6.20 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization400 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.11 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure (extrapolated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2005 2208 2458 2772 3178 3726
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.10
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 538.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1067 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1850.3 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 187 pm
Covalent radius207±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for lanthanum
Speed of sound thin rod2475 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 12.1 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه13.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 615 nΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+118.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۳]
Young's modulusα form: 36.6 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 14.3 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 27.9 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.280
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness360–1750 MPa
Brinell hardness350–400 MPa
CAS Number7439-91-0
History
DiscoveryCarl Gustaf Mosander (1838)
Main isotopes of lanthanum
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
137La syn 6×104 y ε 137Ba

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

139La 99.911% stable
| references | in Wikidata

لانتېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Lanthanum) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د La سمبول او ۵v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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