پروميتيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Promethium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Promethium,  61Pm
Promethium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of promethium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /proʊ-ˈmθiəm/
pro-MEE-thee-əm
Appearance metallic
Promethium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Pm

Np
neodymiumpromethiumsamarium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 61
گروپ, پیریود group n/a, period 6
بلاک f-block
Element category   lanthanide
Mass number 145 (most stable isotope)
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1315 K ​(1042 °C, ​1908 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.26 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 7.13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 289 kJ/mol
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.13 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 540 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2150 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 183 pm
Covalent radius 199 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for promethium
Thermal expansion 9.0 µm/(m·K)[۱] (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 17.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity est. 0.75 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Young's modulus α form: est. 46 GPa
Shear modulus α form: est. 18 GPa
Bulk modulus α form: est. 33 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: est. 0.28
CAS Number 7440-12-2
History
Discovery Chien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe (1942)
First isolation Charles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, Harold G. Richter (1945)
Named by Grace Mary Coryell (1945)
Main isotopes of promethium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
145Pm syn 17.7 y ε 145Nd

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

147Pm trace 2.6234 y β 147Sm
| references | in Wikidata

پروميتيوم (په انگرېزي: Promethium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pm سمبول او ۶۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals. ASM International. ISBN 978-0-87170-768-0. http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~msci301/ThermalExpansion.pdf. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 

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