نيون

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Neon,  10Ne
Neon discharge tube.jpg
Neon spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of neon in the visible region
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈnɒn/
Appearance colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in an electric field
Neon په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
He

Ne

Ar
fluorineneonsodium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 10
گروپ, پیریود group 18 (noble gases), period 2
بلاک p-block
Element category   noble gas
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell
2, 8
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) گاز
دويلې کيدو ټکى 24.56 K ​(−248.59 °C, ​−415.46 °F)
يشنا ټکی 27.104 K ​(−246.046 °C, ​−410.883 °F)
کثافت (at STP) 0.9002 g/L
when liquid, at b.p. 1.207 g/cm3[۲]
Triple point 24.556 K, ​43.37 kPa[۳][۴]
Critical point 44.4918 K, 2.7686 MPa[۴]
Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 20.79[۵] J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 0
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 6122 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for neon
Speed of sound 435 m/s (gas, at 0 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 49.1×10−3 W/(m·K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۶]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −6.74·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۷]
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
CAS Number 7440-01-9
History
Prediction William Ramsay (1897)
Discovery and first isolation William Ramsay & Morris Travers[۸][۹] (1898)
Main isotopes of neon
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
20Ne 90.48% stable
21Ne 0.27% stable
22Ne 9.25% stable
| references | in Wikidata

نيون (په انگرېزي: Neon) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ne سمبول او ۱۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814. http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elements.pdf. 
  3. Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002. Bibcode1990Metro..27....3P. http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/its-90.html. 
  4. ۴٫۰ ۴٫۱ کينډۍ:RubberBible92nd
  5. Shuen-Chen Hwang, Robert D. Lein, Daniel A. Morgan (2005). "Noble Gases". Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. pp. 343–383. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0701190508230114.a01.
  6. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  7. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  8. Ramsay, William; Travers, Morris W. (1898). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "On the Companions of Argon"]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63 (1): 437–440. doi:10.1098/rspl.1898.0057. 
  9. . Neon: History. Softciências

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