کروميم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Chromium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Chromium,  24Cr
Chromium crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈkrmiəm/
KROH-mee-əm
Appearance silvery metallic
Chromium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Cr

Mo
vanadiumchromiummanganese
اټومي شمیره (Z) 24
گروپ, پیریود group 6, period 4
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 13, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2180 K ​(1907 °C, ​3465 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2944 K ​(2671 °C, ​4840 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.19 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.3 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 21.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 347 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 23.35 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1656 1807 1991 2223 2530 2942
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4 ​(depending on the oxidation state, an acidic, basic, or amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.66
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 652.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1590.6 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2987 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 128 pm
Covalent radius 139±5 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for chromium
Speed of sound thin rod 5940 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 4.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 93.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 125 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering antiferromagnetic (rather: SDW)[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +280.0·10−6 cm3/mol (273 K)[۳]
Young's modulus 279 GPa
Shear modulus 115 GPa
Bulk modulus 160 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.21
Mohs hardness 8.5
Vickers hardness 1060 MPa
Brinell hardness 687–6500 MPa
CAS Number 7440-47-3
History
Discovery and first isolation Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1797, 1798)
Main isotopes of chromium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
50Cr 4.345% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

52Cr 83.789% stable
53Cr 9.501% stable
54Cr 2.365% stable
| references | in Wikidata

کروميم (په انگرېزي: Chromium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Cr سمبول او ۲۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Fawcett, Eric (1988). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Spin-density-wave antiferromagnetism in chromium"]. Reviews of Modern Physics 60: 209. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.60.209. Bibcode1988RvMP...60..209F. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.