پلاټينيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Platinum نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈplætɪnəm/
PLAT-IN-ǝm
Appearance silvery white
Platinum په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgold
اټومي شمیره (Z) 78
گروپ, پیریود group 10, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density near r.t. 21.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 870 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius 136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 175 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for platinum
Speed of sound thin rod 2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 105 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +201.9·10−6 cm3/mol (290 K)[۲]
Tensile strength 125–240 MPa
Young's modulus 168 GPa
Shear modulus 61 GPa
Bulk modulus 230 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.38
Mohs hardness 3.5
Vickers hardness 400–550 MPa
Brinell hardness 300–500 MPa
CAS Number 7440-06-4
History
Discovery Antonio de Ulloa (1748)
Main isotopes of platinum
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% stable
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.864% stable
195Pt 33.775% stable
196Pt 25.211% stable
198Pt 7.356% stable
| references | in Wikidata

پلاټينيوم (په انگرېزي: Platinum) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pt سمبول او v۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.