پلاټينيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Platinum,  78Pt
Platinum crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈplætɪnəm/
PLAT-IN-ǝm
Appearancesilvery white
Platinum په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Pd

Pt

Ds
iridiumplatinumgold
اټومي شمیره (Z)78
گروپ, پیریودgroup 10, period 6
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2041.4 K ​(1768.3 °C, ​3214.9 °F)
يشنا ټکی4098 K ​(3825 °C, ​6917 °F)
Density near r.t.21.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.19.77 g/cm3
Heat of fusion22.17 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization510 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2330 (2550) 2815 3143 3556 4094
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 870 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1791 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 139 pm
Covalent radius136±5 pm
Van der Waals radius175 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for platinum
Speed of sound thin rod2800 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion8.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه71.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity105 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+201.9·10−6 cm3/mol (290 K)[۲]
Tensile strength125–240 MPa
Young's modulus168 GPa
Shear modulus61 GPa
Bulk modulus230 GPa
Poisson ratio0.38
Mohs hardness3.5
Vickers hardness400–550 MPa
Brinell hardness300–500 MPa
CAS Number7440-06-4
History
DiscoveryAntonio de Ulloa (1748)
Main isotopes of platinum
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
190Pt 0.012% 6.5×1011 y α 186Os
192Pt 0.782% stable
193Pt syn 50 y ε 193Ir
194Pt 32.864% stable
195Pt 33.775% stable
196Pt 25.211% stable
198Pt 7.356% stable
| references | in Wikidata

پلاټينيوم (په انگرېزي: Platinum) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pt سمبول او v۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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