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د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Thorium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
Thorium,  90Th
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθɔəriəm/
Appearancesilvery, often with black tarnish
Thorium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


اټومي شمیره (Z)90
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 7
Element category  actinide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2023 K ​(1750 °C, ​3182 °F)
يشنا ټکی5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density near r.t.11.7 g/cm3
Heat of fusion13.81 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporisation514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1 ​(a weakly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 587 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1110 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 1930 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 179.8 pm
Covalent radius206±6 pm
Crystal structureface-centred cubic (fcc)
Facecentredcubic crystal structure for thorium
Facecentredcubic crystal structure for thorium
Speed of sound thin rod2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity157 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)132.0·10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)[۳]
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus31 GPa
Bulk modulus54 GPa
Poisson ratio0.27
Mohs hardness3.0
Vickers hardness295–685 MPa
Brinell hardness390–1500 MPa
CAS Number7440-29-1
Namingafter Thor, the Norse god of thunder
DiscoveryJöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Main isotopes of thorium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
227Th trace 18.68 d α 223Ra
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 224Ra
229Th trace 7917 y α 225Ra
230Th 0.02% 75400 y α 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 231Pa
232Th 99.98% 1.405×1010 y α 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 234Pa
| references | in Wikidata

توريوم (په انگرېزي: Thorium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Th سمبول او ۹۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.




د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]


  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  2. Lide, D. R., سمونګر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (چاپ 86th). CRC Press. مخونه 4-135. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8493-0486-6. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  3. Weast, R. (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. مخونه E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8493-0464-4. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)

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