تاليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Thallium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Thallium,  81Tl
Thallium pieces in ampoule.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθæliəm/
THAL-ee-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Thallium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
In

Tl

Nh
mercurythalliumlead
اټومي شمیره (Z)81
گروپ, پیریودgroup 13 (boron group), period 6
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [204.382, 204.385][۱]
  • conventional: 204.38
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى577 K ​(304 °C, ​579 °F)
يشنا ټکی1746 K ​(1473 °C, ​2683 °F)
Density near r.t.11.85 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.11.22 g/cm3
Heat of fusion4.14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization165 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.32 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 882 977 1097 1252 1461 1758
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −5[۲] ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.62
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1971 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2878 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 170 pm
Covalent radius145±7 pm
Van der Waals radius196 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for thallium
Speed of sound thin rod818 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion29.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه46.1 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity0.18 µΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−50.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus8 GPa
Shear modulus2.8 GPa
Bulk modulus43 GPa
Poisson ratio0.45
Mohs hardness1.2
Brinell hardness26.5–44.7 MPa
CAS Number7440-28-0
History
Namingafter Greek thallos, green shoot or twig
DiscoveryWilliam Crookes (1861)
First isolationClaude-Auguste Lamy (1862)
Main isotopes of thallium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
203Tl 29.5% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

205Tl 70.5% stable
| references | in Wikidata

تاليوم (په انگرېزي: Thallium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Tl سمبول او ۸۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Dong, Z.-C.; Corbett, J. D. (1996). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Na23K9Tl15.3:  An Unusual Zintl Compound Containing Apparent Tl57−, Tl48−, Tl37−, and Tl5− Anions"]. Inorganic Chemistry 35 (11): 3107–12. doi:10.1021/ic960014z. 
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.