تاليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Thallium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Thallium,  81Tl
Thallium pieces in ampoule.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈθæliəm/
THAL-ee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Thallium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
In

Tl

Nh
mercurythalliumlead
اټومي شمیره (Z) 81
گروپ, پیریود group 13 (boron group), period 6
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [204.382, 204.385][۱]
  • conventional: 204.38
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 577 K ​(304 °C, ​579 °F)
يشنا ټکی 1746 K ​(1473 °C, ​2683 °F)
Density near r.t. 11.85 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 11.22 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 4.14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 165 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.32 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 882 977 1097 1252 1461 1758
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −5[۲] ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.62
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 589.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1971 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2878 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 170 pm
Covalent radius 145±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 196 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for thallium
Speed of sound thin rod 818 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 29.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 46.1 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 0.18 µΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −50.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 8 GPa
Shear modulus 2.8 GPa
Bulk modulus 43 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.45
Mohs hardness 1.2
Brinell hardness 26.5–44.7 MPa
CAS Number 7440-28-0
History
Naming after Greek thallos, green shoot or twig
Discovery William Crookes (1861)
First isolation Claude-Auguste Lamy (1862)
Main isotopes of thallium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
203Tl 29.5% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

205Tl 70.5% stable
| references | in Wikidata

تاليوم (په انگرېزي: Thallium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Tl سمبول او ۸۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Dong, Z.-C.; Corbett, J. D. (1996). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Na23K9Tl15.3:  An Unusual Zintl Compound Containing Apparent Tl57−, Tl48−, Tl37−, and Tl5− Anions"]. Inorganic Chemistry 35 (11): 3107–12. doi:10.1021/ic960014z. 
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.