روبيډيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Rubidium,  37Rb
Rb5.JPG
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /rʊˈbɪdiəm/
RUU-BID-EE-əm
Appearancegrey white
Rubidium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
K

Rb

Cs
kryptonrubidiumstrontium
اټومي شمیره (Z)37
گروپ, پیریودgroup 1 (alkali metals), period 5
بلاکs-block
Element category  alkali metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى312.45 K ​(39.30 °C, ​102.74 °F)
يشنا ټکی961 K ​(688 °C, ​1270 °F)
Density near r.t.1.532 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.1.46 g/cm3
Triple point312.41 K, ​? kPa[۲]
Critical point2093 K, 16 MPa (extrapolated)[۲]
Heat of fusion2.19 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization69 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity31.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 434 486 552 641 769 958
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+1, −1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 0.82
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 403 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2632.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3859.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 248 pm
Covalent radius220±9 pm
Van der Waals radius303 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for rubidium
Speed of sound thin rod1300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion90 µm/(m·K)[۳] (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه58.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity128 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+17.0·10−6 cm3/mol (303 K)[۵]
Young's modulus2.4 GPa
Bulk modulus2.5 GPa
Mohs hardness0.3
Brinell hardness0.216 MPa
CAS Number7440-17-7
History
DiscoveryRobert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff (1861)
First isolationGeorge de Hevesy
Main isotopes of rubidium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay4

85Rb 72.17% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

87Rb 27.83% 4.9کينډۍ:E y β 87Sr
| references | in Wikidata

روبيډيوم (په انگرېزي: Rubidium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Rb سمبول او ۳v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

== تاریخچه ==روبیډیم په 1861 کې د رابرټ بنسن او ګوستاو کرچوف لخوا کشف شوo د دې د اخراج په طیف کې د روښانه سرې کرښو له امله ، دوی یو نوم غوره کړ چې د لاتین کلمې روبیډوس څخه اخیستل شوی ، معنی یې "ژور سور".


== مرکبات ==ځینې ​​عام روبیډیم مرکبات عبارت دي له: روبیډیم کلورایډ (RbCl) ، روبیډیم مونو اکسایډ (Rb2O) او روبیډیم مسو سلفیټ Rb2SO4 · CuSO4 · 6H20).


== د استعمال ځایونه ==روبیډیم په خلا ټیوبونو کې د ګیټر په توګه کارول کیږي ، هغه مواد چې د خلا ټیوبونو سره ټریس ګازونه سره یوځای کوي او لرې کوي


== سرچينې ==<!doctype html><html itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/SearchResultsPage" lang="en"><head><meta charset="UTF-8"><meta content="origin" name="referrer"><meta content="Anb2GUnhMjfTIX0D2a4a6NPAqPI5GaxxRAiF81XTjHJ2qK4E3Hw3VFM4eaJBgRzz45CNPt624audv+wHOJwfAAEAAABieyJvcmlnaW4iOiJodHRwczovL2dvb2dsZS5jb206NDQzIiwiZmVhdHVyZSI6IlRydXN0VG9rZW5zIiwiZXhwaXJ5IjoxNjI2MjIwNzk5LCJpc1N1YmRvbWFpbiI6dHJ1ZX0=" http-equiv="origin-trial"><title>rubidium used - Google Search</title><script nonce="8F7E029aGaVsLoC25XFeyA==">(function(){window.google={kEI:'0y0oYb3GIMjF0PEP5p-c0Ak',kEXPI:'31',u:'b81a95e8',kBL:'2n4T'};google.sn='web';google.kHL='en';})();(function(){


  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ کينډۍ:RubberBible92nd
  3. Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals (PDF). ASM International. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-87170-768-0. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.