روبيډيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Rubidium,  37Rb
Rb5.JPG
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /rʊˈbɪdiəm/
RUU-BID-EE-əm
Appearance grey white
Rubidium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
K

Rb

Cs
kryptonrubidiumstrontium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 37
گروپ, پیریود group 1 (alkali metals), period 5
بلاک s-block
Element category   alkali metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 312.45 K ​(39.30 °C, ​102.74 °F)
يشنا ټکی 961 K ​(688 °C, ​1270 °F)
Density near r.t. 1.532 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.46 g/cm3
Triple point 312.41 K, ​? kPa[۲]
Critical point 2093 K, 16 MPa (extrapolated)[۲]
Heat of fusion 2.19 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 69 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 31.060 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 434 486 552 641 769 958
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +1, −1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.82
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 403 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2632.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3859.4 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 248 pm
Covalent radius 220±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 303 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for rubidium
Speed of sound thin rod 1300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 90 µm/(m·K)[۳] (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 58.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 128 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +17.0·10−6 cm3/mol (303 K)[۵]
Young's modulus 2.4 GPa
Bulk modulus 2.5 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.3
Brinell hardness 0.216 MPa
CAS Number 7440-17-7
History
Discovery Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff (1861)
First isolation George de Hevesy
Main isotopes of rubidium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay4

85Rb 72.17% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

87Rb 27.83% 4.9کينډۍ:E y β 87Sr
| references | in Wikidata

روبيډيوم (په انگرېزي: Rubidium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Rb سمبول او ۳v اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ کينډۍ:RubberBible92nd
  3. Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals. ASM International. ISBN 978-0-87170-768-0. http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~msci301/ThermalExpansion.pdf. 
  4. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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