گاليوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Gallium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɡæliəm/
GAL-ee-əm
Appearance silvery blue
Gallium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 31
گروپ, پیریود group 13 (boron group), period 4
بلاک p-block
Element category   post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 302.9146 K ​(29.7646 °C, ​85.5763 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2673 K ​(2400 °C, ​4352 °F)[۲]
Density near r.t. 5.91 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.095 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 256 kJ/mol[۲]
Molar heat capacity 25.86 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4, −5[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.81
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 578.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1979.3 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2963 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius 122±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 187 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for gallium
Speed of sound thin rod 2740 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 40.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 270 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −21.6·10−6 cm3/mol (at 290 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 9.8 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.47
Mohs hardness 1.5
Brinell hardness 56.8–68.7 MPa
CAS Number 7440-55-3
History
Naming after Gallia (Latin for: France), homeland of the discoverer
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery and first isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
Main isotopes of gallium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
66Ga syn 9.5 h β+ 66Zn
67Ga syn 3.3 d ε 67Zn
68Ga syn 1.2 h β+ 68Zn
69Ga 60.11% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

71Ga 39.89% stable
72Ga syn 14.1 h β 72Ge
73Ga syn 4.9 h β 73Ge
| references | in Wikidata

گاليوم (په انگرېزي: Gallium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ga سمبول او ۳۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ Zhang Y; Evans JRG; Zhang S (2011). "Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks". J. Chem. Eng. Data 56 (2): 328–337. doi:10.1021/je1011086. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/231538496_Corrected_Values_for_Boiling_Points_and_Enthalpies_of_Vaporization_of_Elements_in_Handbooks. 
  3. Hofmann, Patrick (1997) (in de). Colture. Ein Programm zur interaktiven Visualisierung von Festkörperstrukturen sowie Synthese, Struktur und Eigenschaften von binären und ternären Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallgalliden. PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich. p. 72. doi:10.3929/ethz-a-001859893. ISBN 3728125970. http://www.uni-kassel.de/upress/online/frei/978-3-7281-2597-2.volltext.frei.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.