اوسميوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
(له Osmium نه مخ گرځېدلی)
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Osmium,  76Os
Osmium crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɒzmiəm/
OZ-mee-əm
Appearance silvery, blue cast
Osmium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ru

Os

Hs
rheniumosmiumiridium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 76
گروپ, پیریود group 8, period 6
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 3306 K ​(3033 °C, ​5491 °F)
يشنا ټکی 5285 K ​(5012 °C, ​9054 °F)
Density near r.t. 22.59 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 20 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 31 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 378 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.7 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 3160 3423 3751 4148 4638 5256
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −4 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.2
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 840 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 135 pm
Covalent radius 144±4 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for osmium
Speed of sound thin rod 4940 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 5.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 87.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 81.2 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +9.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۳]
Shear modulus 222 GPa
Bulk modulus 462 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.25
Mohs hardness 7.0
Brinell hardness 3490–4000 MPa
CAS Number 7440-04-2
History
Discovery and first isolation Smithson Tennant (1803)
Main isotopes of osmium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
184Os 0.02% stable
185Os syn 93.6 d ε 185Re
186Os 1.59% 2.0×1015 y α 182W
187Os 1.96% stable
188Os 13.24% stable
189Os 16.15% stable
190Os 26.26% stable
191Os syn 15.4 d β 191Ir
192Os 40.78% stable
193Os syn 30.11 d β 193Ir
194Os syn 6 y β 194Ir
| references | in Wikidata

اوسميوم (په انگرېزي: Osmium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Os سمبول او v۶ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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