برومين

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Bromine,  35Br
Bromine 25ml (transparent).png
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbrmn/ or /ˈbrmɪn/
BROH-meen or BROH-min
Appearance reddish-brown
Bromine په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Cl

Br

 I 
seleniumbrominekrypton
اټومي شمیره (Z) 35
گروپ, پیریود group 17 (halogens), period 4
بلاک p-block
Element category   diatomic nonmetal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [79.901, 79.907][۱]
  • conventional: 79.904
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 7
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) مايع
دويلې کيدو ټکى 265.8 K ​(−7.2 °C, ​19 °F)
يشنا ټکی 332.0 K ​(58.8 °C, ​137.8 °F)
Density near r.t. Br2, liquid: 3.1028 g/cm3
Triple point 265.90 K, ​5.8 kPa[۲]
Critical point 588 K, 10.34 MPa[۲]
Heat of fusion (Br2) 10.571 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporisation (Br2) 29.96 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (Br2) 75.69 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 185 201 220 244 276 332
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 7, 5, 4, 3, 1, −1 ​(a strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.96
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 1139.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2103 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3470 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 120 pm
Covalent radius 120±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 185 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureorthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structure for bromine
Speed of sound 206 m/s (at 20 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 0.122 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 7.8×1010 Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −56.4·10−6 cm3/mol[۴]
CAS Number 7726-95-6
History
Discovery and first isolation Antoine Jérôme Balard and Carl Jacob Löwig (1825)
Main isotopes of bromine
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
79Br 51% stable
81Br 49% stable
| references | in Wikidata

برومين (په انگرېزي: Bromine) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Br سمبول او ۳۵ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. ۲٫۰ ۲٫۱ کينډۍ:RubberBible92nd
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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