نېکل

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Nickel,  28Ni
A pitted and lumpy piece of nickel, with the top surface cut flat
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈnɪkəl/
NIK-əl
Appearancelustrous, metallic, and silver with a gold tinge
Nickel په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
اټومي شمیره (Z)28
گروپ, پیریودgroup 10, period 4
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d8 4s2 or
[Ar] 3d9 4s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
يشنا ټکی3003 K ​(2730 °C, ​4946 °F)
Density near r.t.8.908 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.7.81 g/cm3
Heat of fusion17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization379 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4,[۲] 3, 2, 1,[۳] −1, −2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.91
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 737.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1753.0 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3395 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
Speed of sound thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity69.3 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness4.0
Vickers hardness638 MPa
Brinell hardness667–1600 MPa
CAS Number7440-02-0
History
Discovery and first isolationAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Main isotopes of nickel
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
58Ni 68.077% stable
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59Co
60Ni 26.223% stable
61Ni 1.140% stable
62Ni 3.635% stable
63Ni syn 100 y β 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% stable
| references | in Wikidata

نېکل (په انگرېزي: Nickel) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ni سمبول او ۲۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Carnes, Matthew; Buccella, Daniela; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Ramirez, Arthur P.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Nuckolls, Colin; Steigerwald, Michael (2009). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)"]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48 (2): 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. PMID 19021174. 
  3. Pfirrmann, Stefan; Limberg, Christian; Herwig, Christian; Stößer, Reinhard; Ziemer, Burkhard (2009). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps"]. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48 (18): 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. PMID 19322853. 

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