سېلېکان

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Silicon,  14Si
SiliconCroda.jpg
Silicon Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of silicon
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈsɪlɪkən/ or /ˈsɪlɪkɒn/
SIL-IK-ən or SIL-IK-on
Appearance crystalline, reflective with bluish-tinged faces
Silicon په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
اټومي شمیره (Z) 14
گروپ, پیریود group 14 (carbon group), period 3
بلاک p-block
Element category   metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [28.084, 28.086][۱]
  • conventional: 28.085
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 4
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.57 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 50.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 383 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[۲] −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.90
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 786.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1577.1 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3231.6 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radius empirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered diamond-cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for silicon
Speed of sound thin rod 8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 2.3کينډۍ:E Ω·m (at 20 °C)[۳]
Band gap 1.12 eV (at 300 K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −3.9·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۵]
Young's modulus 130–188 GPa[۶]
Shear modulus 51–80 GPa[۶]
Bulk modulus 97.6 GPa[۶]
Poisson ratio 0.064–0.28[۶]
Mohs hardness 7
CAS Number 7440-21-3
History
Naming after Latin 'silex' or 'silicis', meaning flint
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Discovery and first isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius[۷][۸] (1823)
Named by Thomas Thomson (1817)
Main isotopes of silicon
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
28Si 92.2% stable
29Si 4.7% stable
30Si 3.1% stable
31Si trace 2.62 h β 31P
32Si trace 153 y β 32P
| references | in Wikidata

سېلېکان (په انگرېزي: Silicon) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Si سمبول او ۱۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Ram, R. S. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/184.pdf. 
  3. Eranna, Golla (2014). Crystal Growth and Evaluation of Silicon for VLSI and ULSI. CRC Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4822-3281-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=bo6ZBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA7. 
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in کينډۍ:RubberBible86th
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ ۶٫۲ ۶٫۳ Hopcroft, Matthew A.; Nix, William D.; Kenny, Thomas W. (2010). "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?". Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 19 (2): 229. doi:10.1109/JMEMS.2009.2039697. http://silicon.reddogresearch.com/. 
  7. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum"]. Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1386–1412. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386. Bibcode1932JChEd...9.1386W. 
  8. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Silicon era"]. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397. 

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