پروميتيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Promethium,  61Pm
Promethium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of promethium
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /proʊ-ˈmθiəm/
pro-MEE-thee-əm
Appearancemetallic
Promethium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Pm

Np
neodymiumpromethiumsamarium
اټومي شمیره (Z)61
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
Mass number145 (most stable isotope)
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f5 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1315 K ​(1042 °C, ​1908 °F)
يشنا ټکی3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Density near r.t.7.26 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.13 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization289 kJ/mol
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.13 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 540 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1050 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2150 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 183 pm
Covalent radius199 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for promethium
Thermal expansion9.0 µm/(m·K)[۱] (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه17.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityest. 0.75 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Young's modulusα form: est. 46 GPa
Shear modulusα form: est. 18 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: est. 33 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: est. 0.28
CAS Number7440-12-2
History
DiscoveryChien Shiung Wu, Emilio Segrè, Hans Bethe (1942)
First isolationCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, Harold G. Richter (1945)
Named byGrace Mary Coryell (1945)
Main isotopes of promethium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
145Pm syn 17.7 y ε 145Nd

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

147Pm trace 2.6234 y β 147Sm
| references | in Wikidata

پروميتيوم (په انگرېزي: Promethium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pm سمبول او ۶۱ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals (PDF). ASM International. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-87170-768-0. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  2. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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