کادميوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Cadmium,  48Cd
Cadmium-crystal bar.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈkædmiəm/
KAD-mee-əm
Appearance silvery bluish-gray metallic
Cadmium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Zn

Cd

Hg
silvercadmiumindium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 48
گروپ, پیریود group 12, period 5
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal, alternatively considered a post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 594.22 K ​(321.07 °C, ​609.93 °F)
يشنا ټکی 1040 K ​(767 °C, ​1413 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.65 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.996 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 6.21 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 99.87 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.020 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 530 583 654 745 867 1040
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 2, 1, −2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.69
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 867.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1631.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3616 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 151 pm
Covalent radius 144±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 158 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cadmium
Speed of sound thin rod 2310 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 30.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 96.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 72.7 nΩ·m (at 22 °C)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −19.8·10−6 cm3/mol[۳]
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 19 GPa
Bulk modulus 42 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 2.0
Brinell hardness 203–220 MPa
CAS Number 7440-43-9
History
Discovery and first isolation Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann and Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Named by Friedrich Stromeyer (1817)
Main isotopes of cadmium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
106Cd 1.25% stable
107Cd syn 6.5 h ε 107Ag
108Cd 0.89% stable
109Cd syn 462.6 d ε 109Ag
110Cd 12.47% stable
111Cd 12.80% stable
112Cd 24.11% stable
113Cd 12.23% 7.7×1015 y β 113In

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

114Cd 28.75% stable
115Cd syn 53.46 h β 115In
116Cd 7.51% 3.1×1019 y ββ 116Sn
| references | in Wikidata

کادميوم (په انگرېزي: Cadmium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Cd سمبول او ۴۸ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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