پلاديوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Palladium,  46Pd
Palladium (46 Pd).jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /pəˈldiəm/
pə-LAY-dee-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Palladium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ni

Pd

Pt
rhodiumpalladiumsilver
اټومي شمیره (Z)46
گروپ, پیریودgroup 10, period 5
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1828.05 K ​(1554.9 °C, ​2830.82 °F)
يشنا ټکی3236 K ​(2963 °C, ​5365 °F)
Density near r.t.12.023 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.10.38 g/cm3
Heat of fusion16.74 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization358 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.98 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1721 1897 2117 2395 2753 3234
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states0, +1, +2, +3, +4 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 804.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1870 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3177 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 137 pm
Covalent radius139±6 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for palladium
Speed of sound thin rod3070 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion11.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه71.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity105.4 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+567.4·10−6 cm3/mol (288 K)[۳]
Young's modulus121 GPa
Shear modulus44 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.39
Mohs hardness4.75
Vickers hardness400–600 MPa
Brinell hardness320–610 MPa
CAS Number7440-05-3
History
Namingafter asteroid Pallas, itself named after Pallas Athena
Discovery and first isolationWilliam Hyde Wollaston (1803)
Main isotopes of palladium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

102Pd 1.02% stable
103Pd syn 16.991 d ε 103Rh
104Pd 11.14% stable
105Pd 22.33% stable
106Pd 27.33% stable
107Pd trace 6.5×106 y β 107Ag
108Pd 26.46% stable
110Pd 11.72% stable
| references | in Wikidata

پلاديوم (په انگرېزي: Palladium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Pd سمبول او ۴۶ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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