هافنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Hafnium,  72Hf
Hf-crystal bar.jpg
Hafnium spectrum visible.png
Spectral lines of hafnium (400–700 nm)
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhæfniəm/
HAF-nee-əm
Appearancesteel gray
Hafnium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Zr

Hf

Rf
lutetiumhafniumtantalum
اټومي شمیره (Z)72
گروپ, پیریودgroup 4, period 6
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2506 K ​(2233 °C, ​4051 °F)
يشنا ټکی4876 K ​(4603 °C, ​8317 °F)
Density near r.t.13.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.12 g/cm3
Heat of fusion27.2 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization648 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.73 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2689 2954 3277 3679 4194 4876
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1, −2 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.3
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 658.5 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1440 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2250 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 159 pm
Covalent radius175±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for hafnium
Speed of sound thin rod3010 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion5.9 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه23.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity331 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+75.0·10−6 cm3/mol (at 298 K)[۳]
Young's modulus78 GPa
Shear modulus30 GPa
Bulk modulus110 GPa
Poisson ratio0.37
Mohs hardness5.5
Vickers hardness1520–2060 MPa
Brinell hardness1450–2100 MPa
CAS Number7440-58-6
History
Namingafter Hafnia. Latin for: Copenhagen, where it was discovered
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1869)
Discovery and first isolationDirk Coster and George de Hevesy (1922)
Main isotopes of hafnium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
172Hf syn 1.87 y ε 172Lu
174Hf 0.16% 2×1015 y α 170Yb
176Hf 5.26% stable
177Hf 18.60% stable
178Hf 27.28% stable
178m2Hf syn 31 y IT 178Hf
179Hf 13.62% stable
180Hf 35.08% stable
182Hf syn 8.9×106 y β 182Ta
| references | in Wikidata

هافنيوم (په انگرېزي: Hafnium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Hf سمبول او v۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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