نيوديموميم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Neodymium,  60Nd
Neodymium2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˌn.oʊ-ˈdɪmiəm/
NEE-o-DIM-ee-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Neodymium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


Nd

U
praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
اټومي شمیره (Z)60
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
بلاکf-block
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1297 K ​(1024 °C, ​1875 °F)
يشنا ټکی3347 K ​(3074 °C, ​5565 °F)
Density near r.t.7.01 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.6.89 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization289 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.45 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states+4, +3, +2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.14
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 533.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1040 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2130 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 181 pm
Covalent radius201±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuredouble hexagonal close-packed (dhcp)
Double hexagonal close packed crystal structure for neodymium
Speed of sound thin rod2330 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 9.6 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه16.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 643 nΩ·m
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic, antiferromagnetic below 20 K[۲]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+5628.0·10−6 cm3/mol (287.7 K)[۳]
Young's modulusα form: 41.4 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 16.3 GPa
Bulk modulusα form: 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.281
Vickers hardness345–745 MPa
Brinell hardness265–700 MPa
CAS Number7440-00-8
History
DiscoveryCarl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Main isotopes of neodymium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
142Nd 27.2% stable
143Nd 12.2% stable
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% stable
146Nd 17.2% stable
148Nd 5.8% stable
150Nd 5.6% 6.7×1018 y ββ 150Sm
| references | in Wikidata

نيوديموميم (په انگرېزي: Neodymium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Nd سمبول او ۶۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Gschneidner, K. A.; Eyring, L. (1978). Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. Amsterdam: North Holland. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0444850228. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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