زرکونيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Zirconium,  40Zr
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /zɜːrˈkniəm/
zur-KOH-ni-əm
Appearancesilvery white
Zirconium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ti

Zr

Hf
yttriumzirconiumniobium
اټومي شمیره (Z)40
گروپ, پیریودgroup 4, period 5
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
يشنا ټکی4650 K ​(4377 °C, ​7911 °F)
Density near r.t.6.52 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.5.8 g/cm3
Heat of fusion14 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization591 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.36 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1, −2[۲] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.33
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 640.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1270 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2218 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius175±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for zirconium
Speed of sound thin rod3800 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion5.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه22.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity421 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۳]
Young's modulus88 GPa
Shear modulus33 GPa
Bulk modulus91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio0.34
Mohs hardness5.0
Vickers hardness820–1800 MPa
Brinell hardness638–1880 MPa
CAS Number7440-67-7
History
Namingafter zircon, zargun زرگون meaning "gold-colored".
DiscoveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Main isotopes of zirconium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay3

90Zr 51.45% stable
91Zr 11.22% stable
92Zr 17.15% stable
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% stable
96Zr 2.80% 2.0×1019 y[۴] ββ 96Mo
| references | in Wikidata

زرکونيوم (په انگرېزي: Zirconium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Zr سمبول او ۴۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. "Zirconium: zirconium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۰ ډيسمبر ۲۰۰۷. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Pritychenko, Boris; Tretyak, V. "Adopted Double Beta Decay Data". National Nuclear Data Center. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۱ فبروري ۲۰۰۸. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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