روتېنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Ruthenium,  44Ru
Ruthenium a half bar.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /rˈθniəm/
roo-THEE-nee-əm
Appearance silvery white metallic
Ruthenium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 44
گروپ, پیریود group 8, period 5
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
فزیکي خواص
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
يشنا ټکی 4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Density near r.t. 12.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.65 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 38.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 619 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.06 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states -4, -2, 1,[۲] 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.2
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 710.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1620 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2747 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for ruthenium
Speed of sound thin rod 5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 71 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +43.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 447 GPa
Shear modulus 173 GPa
Bulk modulus 220 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.30
Mohs hardness 6.5
Brinell hardness 2160 MPa
CAS Number 7440-18-8
History
Naming after Ruthenia (Latin for: medieval Kyivska Rus' region)
Discovery and first isolation Karl Ernst Claus (1844)
Main isotopes of ruthenium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
96Ru 5.54% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

98Ru 1.87% stable
99Ru 12.76% stable
100Ru 12.60% stable
101Ru 17.06% stable
102Ru 31.55% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

104Ru 18.62% stable
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 106Rh
| references | in Wikidata

روتېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Ruthenium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ru سمبول او ۴۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data. OpenMOPAC.net
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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