روتېنيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Ruthenium,  44Ru
Ruthenium a half bar.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /rˈθniəm/
roo-THEE-nee-əm
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Ruthenium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Fe

Ru

Os
technetiumrutheniumrhodium
اټومي شمیره (Z)44
گروپ, پیریودgroup 8, period 5
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
فزیکي خواص
دويلې کيدو ټکى2607 K ​(2334 °C, ​4233 °F)
يشنا ټکی4423 K ​(4150 °C, ​7502 °F)
Density near r.t.12.45 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.10.65 g/cm3
Heat of fusion38.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization619 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.06 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2588 2811 3087 3424 3845 4388
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states-4, -2, 1,[۲] 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.2
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 710.2 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1620 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2747 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius146±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for ruthenium
Speed of sound thin rod5970 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه117 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity71 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+43.2·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus447 GPa
Shear modulus173 GPa
Bulk modulus220 GPa
Poisson ratio0.30
Mohs hardness6.5
Brinell hardness2160 MPa
CAS Number7440-18-8
History
Namingafter Ruthenia (Latin for: medieval Kyivska Rus' region)
Discovery and first isolationKarl Ernst Claus (1844)
Main isotopes of ruthenium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
96Ru 5.54% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

98Ru 1.87% stable
99Ru 12.76% stable
100Ru 12.60% stable
101Ru 17.06% stable
102Ru 31.55% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

104Ru 18.62% stable
106Ru syn 373.59 d β 106Rh
| references | in Wikidata

روتېنيوم (په انگرېزي: Ruthenium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ru سمبول او ۴۴ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. "Ruthenium: ruthenium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۰ ډيسمبر ۲۰۰۷. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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