تېلوريوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Tellurium,  52Te
Tellurium2.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /tɪˈljʊəriəm/
TI-LEWR-EE-əm
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray (crystalline),
brown-black powder (amorphous)
Tellurium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Se

Te

Po
antimonytelluriumiodine
اټومي شمیره (Z)52
گروپ, پیریودgroup 16 (chalcogens), period 5
بلاکp-block
Element category  metalloid
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 6
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى722.66 K ​(449.51 °C, ​841.12 °F)
يشنا ټکی1261 K ​(988 °C, ​1810 °F)
Density near r.t.6.24 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.5.70 g/cm3
Heat of fusion17.49 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization114.1 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.73 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)   (775) (888) 1042 1266
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.1
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 869.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1790 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2698 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 140 pm
Covalent radius138±4 pm
Van der Waals radius206 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for tellurium
Speed of sound thin rod2610 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion18 µm/(m·K)[۲] (at r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه1.97–3.38 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−39.5·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus43 GPa
Shear modulus16 GPa
Bulk modulus65 GPa
Mohs hardness2.25
Brinell hardness180–270 MPa
CAS Number13494-80-9
History
Namingafter Roman Tellus, deity of the Earth
DiscoveryFranz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1782)
First isolationMartin Heinrich Klaproth
Main isotopes of tellurium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
120Te 0.09% stable
121Te syn 16.78 d ε 121Sb
122Te 2.55% stable
123Te 0.89%[۵] stable
124Te 4.74% stable
125Te 7.07% stable
126Te 18.84% stable
127Te syn 9.35 h β 127I
128Te 31.74% 2.2×1024 y ββ 128Xe
129Te syn 69.6 min β 129I
130Te 34.08% 7.9×1020 y ββ 130Xe
| references | in Wikidata

تېلوريوم (په انگرېزي: Tellurium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Te سمبول او ۵۲ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Cverna, Fran (2002). "Ch. 2 Thermal Expansion". ASM Ready Reference: Thermal properties of metals (PDF). ASM International. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-87170-768-0. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  5. Alessandrello, A.; Arnaboldi, C.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M. et al. (2003). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "New limits on naturally occurring electron capture of 123Te"]. Physical Review C 67: 014323. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.67.014323. Bibcode2003PhRvC..67a4323A. 

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