بېسموت

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Bismuth,  83Bi
Bismuth crystals and 1cm3 cube.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbɪzməθ/
BIZ-məth
Appearancelustrous brownish silver
Bismuth په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Sb

Bi

Mc
leadbismuthpolonium
اټومي شمیره (Z)83
گروپ, پیریودgroup 15 (pnictogens), period 6
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى544.7 K ​(271.5 °C, ​520.7 °F)
يشنا ټکی1837 K ​(1564 °C, ​2847 °F)
Density near r.t.9.78 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.10.05 g/cm3
Heat of fusion11.30 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization179 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states5, 4, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.02
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 703 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1610 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2466 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 156 pm
Covalent radius148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius207 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurerhombohedral[۲]
Rhombohedral crystal structure for bismuth
Speed of sound thin rod1790 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه7.97 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1.29 µΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−280.1·10−6 cm3/mol[۳]
Young's modulus32 GPa
Shear modulus12 GPa
Bulk modulus31 GPa
Poisson ratio0.33
Mohs hardness2.25
Brinell hardness70–95 MPa
CAS Number7440-69-9
History
DiscoveryClaude François Geoffroy (1753)
Main isotopes of bismuth
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 208Pb
209Bi 100% 1.9×1019 y α 205Tl

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

| references | in Wikidata

بېسموت (په انگرېزي: Bismuth) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Bi سمبول او ۸۳ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Cucka, P.; Barrett, C. S. (1962). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "The crystal structure of Bi and of solid solutions of Pb, Sn, Sb and Te in Bi"]. Acta Crystallographica 15 (9): 865. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62002297. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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