بېريوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Barium,  56Ba
Barium unter Argon Schutzgas Atmosphäre.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈbɛriəm/
BAIR-ee-əm
Appearance silvery gray; with a pale yellow tint[۱]
Barium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Sr

Ba

Ra
caesiumbariumlanthanum
اټومي شمیره (Z) 56
گروپ, پیریود group 2 (alkaline earth metals), period 6
بلاک s-block
Element category   alkaline earth metals
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۲]
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 1000 K ​(727 °C, ​1341 °F)
يشنا ټکی 2118 K ​(1845 °C, ​3353 °F)
Density near r.t. 3.51 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 3.338 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 7.12 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 142 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 911 1038 1185 1388 1686 2170
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states +2, +1 ​(a strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 0.89
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 502.9 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 965.2 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3600 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 222 pm
Covalent radius 215±11 pm
Van der Waals radius 268 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for barium
Speed of sound thin rod 1620 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 20.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 18.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 332 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +20.6·10−6 cm3/mol[۴]
Young's modulus 13 GPa
Shear modulus 4.9 GPa
Bulk modulus 9.6 GPa
Mohs hardness 1.25
CAS Number 7440-39-3
History
Discovery Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1772)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1808)
Main isotopes of barium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
130Ba 0.11% (0.5–2.7)×1021 y εε 130Xe
132Ba 0.10% stable
133Ba syn 10.51 y ε 133Cs
134Ba 2.42% stable
135Ba 6.59% stable
136Ba 7.85% stable
137Ba 11.23% stable
138Ba 71.70% stable
| references | in Wikidata

بېريوم (په انگرېزي: Barium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Ba سمبول او ۵۶ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. کينډۍ:Greenwood&Earnshaw
  2. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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