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د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
Ytterbium,  70Yb
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ɪˈtɜːrbiəm/
Appearancesilvery white; with a pale yellow tint[۱]
Ytterbium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


اټومي شمیره (Z)70
گروپ, پیریودgroup n/a, period 6
Element category  lanthanide
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۲][۳][۴]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1097 K ​(824 °C, ​1515 °F)
يشنا ټکی1469 K ​(1196 °C, ​2185 °F)
Density near r.t.6.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.6.21 g/cm3
Heat of fusion7.66 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization129 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.1 (?)
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 603.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1174.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2417 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius187±8 pm
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for ytterbium
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for ytterbium
Speed of sound thin rod1590 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionβ, poly: 26.3 µm/(m·K) (r.t.)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه38.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityβ, poly: 0.250 µΩ·m (at r.t.)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)+249.0·10−6 cm3/mol (2928 K)[۵]
Young's modulusβ form: 23.9 GPa
Shear modulusβ form: 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulusβ form: 30.5 GPa
Poisson ratioβ form: 0.207
Vickers hardness205–250 MPa
Brinell hardness340–440 MPa
CAS Number7440-64-4
Namingafter Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
DiscoveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolationCarl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Main isotopes of ytterbium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
166Yb syn 56.7 h ε 166Tm
168Yb 0.126% stable
169Yb syn 32.026 d ε 169Tm
170Yb 3.023% stable
171Yb 14.216% stable
172Yb 21.754% stable
173Yb 16.098% stable
174Yb 31.896% stable
175Yb syn 4.185 d β 175Lu
176Yb 12.887% stable
177Yb syn 1.911 h β 177Lu
| references | in Wikidata

ايتربيوم (په انگرېزي: Ytterbium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Yb سمبول او v۰ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.




د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]


  1. کينډۍ:Greenwood&Earnshaw
  2. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  3. "Standard Atomic Weights 2015". Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. 12 October 2015. لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۸ فبروري ۲۰۱۷. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  4. "Standard Atomic Weight of Ytterbium Revised". Chemistry International. October 2015. مخونه 26. doi:10.1515/ci-2015-0512. eISSN 0193-6484. ISSN 0193-6484. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. مخونه E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. منځګړی |CitationClass= له پامه غورځول شوی (لارښود)

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