انډيوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Indium,  49In
Indium.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɪndiəm/
IN-dee-əm
Appearancesilvery lustrous gray
Indium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ga

In

Tl
cadmiumindiumtin
اټومي شمیره (Z)49
گروپ, پیریودgroup 13 (boron group), period 5
بلاکp-block
Element category  post-transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 3
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
يشنا ټکی2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density near r.t.7.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.7.02 g/cm3
Triple point429.7445 K, ​~1 kPa[۲]
Heat of fusion3.281 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −5[۳] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.78
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 558.3 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1820.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2704 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius193 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structuretetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structure for indium
Speed of sound thin rod1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity83.7 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−64.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۵]
Young's modulus11 GPa
Mohs hardness1.2
Brinell hardness8.8–10.0 MPa
CAS Number7440-74-6
History
DiscoveryFerdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolationHieronymous Theodor Richter (1864)
Main isotopes of indium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
113In 4.28% stable
115In 95.72% 4.41×1014 y β 115Sn
| references | in Wikidata

انډيوم (په انگرېزي: Indium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د In سمبول او ۴۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. Mangum, B. W. (1989). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Determination of the Indium Freezing-point and Triple-point Temperatures"]. Metrologia 26 (4): 211. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/4/001. Bibcode1989Metro..26..211M. 
  3. Guloy, A. M.; Corbett, J. D. (1996). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding of Two Lanthanum Indium Germanides with Novel Structures and Properties"]. Inorganic Chemistry 35 (9): 2616–22. doi:10.1021/ic951378e. 
  4. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

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