کينډۍ:Infobox hydrogen

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
هايډروجن,  1H
Hydrogen discharge tube.jpg
ارغواني ګلو په خپل پلازمېا حالت کې
Hydrogen Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of hydrogen
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈhdrəən/[۱]
HY-drə-jən
Appearance colorless gas
هايډروجن په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)


H

Li
– ← هايډروجنهېليوم
اټومي شمیره (Z) 1
گروپ, پیریود group 1, period 1
بلاک s-block
Element category   diatomic nonmetal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)
  • [1.00784, 1.00811][۲]
  • conventional: 1.008
Electron configuration 1s1
Electrons per shell
1
فزیکي خواص
Color colorless
حالت (at STP) gas
دويلې کيدو ټکى 13.99 K ​(−259.16 °C, ​−434.49 °F)
يشنا ټکی 20.271 K ​(−252.879 °C, ​−423.182 °F)
کثافت (at STP) 0.08988 g/L
when liquid, at m.p. 0.07 g/cm3 (solid: 0.0763 g/cm3)[۳]
when liquid, at b.p. 0.07099 g/cm3
Triple point 13.8033 K, ​7.041 kPa
Critical point 32.938 K, 1.2858 MPa
Heat of fusion (H2) 0.117 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (H2) 0.904 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity (H2) 28.836 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 15 20
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states −1, +1 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1312.0 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 31±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 120 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structurehexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for هايډروجن
Speed of sound 1310 m/s (gas, 27 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 0.1805 W/(m·K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[۴]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) −3.98·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۵]
CAS Number 12385-13-6
1333-74-0 (H2)
History
Discovery Henry Cavendish[۶][۷] (1766)
Named by Antoine Lavoisier[۸] (1783)
Main isotopes of هايډروجن
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
1H 99.98% stable
2H 0.02% stable
3H trace 12.32 y β 3He
| references | in Wikidata

Element navigation

hydrogenPT
 ←
 
→ He

سرچينې

  1. Simpson, J. A.; Weiner, E. S. C. (1989). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "Hydrogen"]. Oxford English Dictionary. 7 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861219-2. 
  2. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  3. Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils; Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 240. ISBN 0123526515. http://books.google.com/books?id=vEwj1WZKThEC&pg=PA240. 
  4. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  5. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  6. "Hydrogen". Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. (2005). Wylie-Interscience. 797–799. ISBN 0-471-61525-0. 
  7. Emsley, John (2001). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". Nature's Building Blocks]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 183–191. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. 
  8. Stwertka, Albert (1996). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". A Guide to the Elements]. Oxford University Press. pp. 16–21. ISBN 0-19-508083-1. 
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