اسلام

د ويکيپېډيا لخوا
ورټوپ کړه: گرځښت, پلټل
کعبه شریفه چې په سعودي عربستان کی پرته ده دا د اسلام مرکز او د مسلمانانو قبله ده او دا هغه ځای دی کوم چې هر کال په زرګونه مسلمانان دلته د خدای د کور د زیارت لپاره راځې.

اسلام (عربي: الإسلام; (، "اطاعت" (د الله(ج) د رضا)) يو مونوتېسټېک (د يوه څښتن مننونکي) ګروهې (عقيده) لرونکې دین دی. پخپله د اسلام وی د سولې، امن، سلامتۍ، روغې جوړې رامنځته کول دي. دا دین له درېیو ابراهيمي دينونو (یهوديت، عیسویت، اسلام) له ډلې څخه دی، چې د نړۍ په کچه دویم ستر مذهب ګڼل کېږي. د اسلام د دين لارويانو ته مسلمانان وايي. مسلمانان پدې ګروهه دي چې الله(ج) د انسانانو د لارښوونې لپاره وخت پر وخت، خپل استازي (پيغمبران) رالېږلي، چې هریو خپله دنده د الهي اوامرو په رڼا کې په بشپړه توګه سرته رسولې. د الهي استازو (پیغمرانو) وروستې استازې محمد(ص) دی.

اسلام "تسليمۍ او غاړه اېښودنې ټه وایي", يا په بله وينا ځان د الله تعالی رضا ته تسليمول. د اسلام د دين لاروي ته مسلمان ويل کېږي، مانا دا چې "هغه څوک چې ځان يې الله(ج) ته سپارلی او د هغه د احکامو اطاعت کوي، مسلمان ګڼل کېږي".[1][2] په ټوله نړۍ کې د ۱٫۱ بيليون او ۱٫۸ بيليون ترمېنځ وګړي د اسلام د دين لارويان دي، چې په همدې توګه وروسته د عيسويت نه اسلام د نړۍ دویم ستر دين ګڼل کېږي.[3]

مسلمانان په دې ګروهه دي چې الله(ج) قرآن مجيد پر محمد(ص) نازل کړی، او محمد(ص) د الله تعالی وروستی پيغمبر دی. مسلمانان پدې عقيده هم دي چې قرآن مجيد او سُنت (د محمد(ص) خبرې او اعمال) د اسلام بنسټيزې سرچينې دي.[4] مسلمانان په دې عقيده هم دي چې محمد(ص) د يوه نوي دين په توګه د اسلام د دين بنسټګر نه ؤ، خو همدا وروستی پيغمبر د اسلام د دين د ګروهې آرنۍ لمانځونکی او پرځای کوونکی دی چې پر زمکه يې بنسټ آدم(ع) ايښی چې بيا تر هغه وروسته ابراهيم(ع) او د هغه نه پخوانيو او وروستنيو، د الله(ج) ټولو پيغمبرانو يې د دغه دين او اصلي لارې بلنه ورکړې. مسلمانان دا عقيده لري چې په يهوديت او عيسويت کې د الله(ج) پيغام چې د بېلابېلو انبياو لخوا پر دوی نازل شوي، هغه د دوی لخوا د وخت په تېرېدو سره تحريف شوي، او ناسمه ترجماني يې شوې، که هغه په ليکلې بڼه وي او که پرته د ليکلې بڼې وي.[5]

د اسلام دين د ګڼ شمېر اسلامي اعمالو يو غونډال دی. د دغه دين مننونکي بايد د اسلام د دين د پينځه ستنو مننونکي او پلي کونکي وي، د اسلام د دين پينځه ستنې له بېلابېلو فرايضو او دندو نه جوړ شوی او همدغه پينځه ستنې دي چې په يوې ټولنه کې مسلمانان سره متحده کوي.[6] د اسلام د دين د پينځه ستنو سره سره، اسلامي قانون (شريعة) د احکامونو يو دوديزه قضايي واک دی چې د مسلمانانو د ژوند او ټولنې هر اړخ يې اغېزمن کړی. په دې قانون کې هر څه رانغښتې دي، د عملي چارو نه نيولې لکه د خوراک، څښاک آن تر سوداګريزو او پانګه ايزو چارو او تر جګړايزو چارو پورې هر څه په دې قانون کې راغلي دي.[7]

نژدې ټول مسلمانان د اسلام په دوو لويو فريقو لکه سني او شيع پورې تړاو لري. د تشيع فرقه په ۷مه پېړۍ کې د مسلمانانو تر مېنځ د مذهبي او سياسي توپيرونو په پايله کې رامېنځ ته شوې. په اټکلي توګه ۸۵ په سلو کې مسلمانان د اهل سنت لارويان دي او ۱۵ په سلو کې د تشيع فرقې لارويان دي.په منځنی ختيځ، او همداراز د افريقا او آسيا په برخو کې د اسلام دين برلاسی دی. د دغه دين د مننونکو لويې ډلې په چين، د بالکان هيوادونو په ختيځه اروپا او روسيې کې شته. په لويديځه اروپا کې هم ګڼ شمېر مسلمان مهاجرين مېشت دي او همدا راز په امريکا کې هم د مسلمانانو ټولنې شته. په سلو کې نژدې ۲۰٪ مسلمانان په عربو هېوادونو کې مېشت دي.[8]

آرپوهه

اسلام د عربي ژبې د درې تورو، سين-لام-ميم (س-ل-م) نه راوتلی. اسلام د همدغې ريښې يو تجريدي فعل دی چې مانا يې ده "تسليم يا ځان سپارل، څان الله(ج) ته سپارل، اطاعت کول او د سولې" په مانا هم ده.

کله چې د پورتني ويي د ريښو په اړه په نورو ژبو کې څېړنه کوو، نو بيا په عبراني ژبه کې د پورتني وييکي ضمني ماناګانې هم راوځي. په عبراني ژبه کې د شلوم ويي، د (شين-لامد-ميم) نه خپلې ريښې اخلي (کينډۍ:Ivrit). په ډېرو سېمېټک ژبو کې د همدغه لغت ضمني ماناګانې شته، چې مانا يې بشپړکېدل، پوره کېدل، سر ته رسېدنه، ښه اوسېدنه، هوسا اوسېدنه، يو داسې اصطلاح چې په ژباړه کې اکثراً د سولې د وييکي مانا په ځان کې رانغاړي، ورکوي.

په قرآن کې هم د اسلام د لغت د مانا بېلابېل تعبيرونه راغلي. په ځينو آيتونو، کې د اسلام کيفيت د يوې راسخې عقيدې په توګه تاکيد شوی: "الله(ج) که وغواړي چې د يو چا لارښونه وکړي، نو الله(ج) د هغه سينه د اسلام لپاره پراخه کوي."[9] نور آيتونه بيا اسلام او دين (اکثراً د "مذهب" په توګه ژباړل کېږي) د يو شي په توګه تعبيروي : "نن، ما ستاسو دين ستاسو لپاره مکمل کړ؛ ما ستاسو لپاره خپل د برکتونو اچول مکمل کړل؛ ما ستاسو لپار د اسلام دين غوره کړ."[10] ډېر نور خلک بيا اسلام داسې تعريفوي چې دا هغه دين دی چې انسان د همدې دين په مرسته بېرته الله تعالی ته ورستنېږي نسبت و دې ته چې د ايمان د اعمالو د تصديق په توګه وګڼلای شي.[11]

هغه نور عربي وييونه چې د س-ل-م نه راوتلي:

  • سلام, چې د "سولې او سلامتۍ" په مانا ده او د ورځيني روغبړ يوه اهمه کلمه ده, السلام عليکم (ته دې سلامت وې/سلامتي دې پر تا وي).
  • السلام(سوله)د الله(ج) د ۹۹ مبارکو نومونو نه يو نوم دی چې په قران کې هم راغلی.
  • مسلمان, د اسلام د دين مننونکي ته وايي او مانا يې ده هغه څوک چې ځان الله(ج) ته تسليم کوي او يا د الله(ج) اطاعت کوي.
  • سلامه, د "سلامتي," په مانا ده چې د "خدای پامانۍ" په وخت کې وييل کېږي، د "مع السلامه" مانا ( سلامتۍ سره[لاړ شه]) ده.

عقيده

د اسلام بنسټيزه عقيده شهادت دی چې د ګواهۍ مانا لري شهادت ( لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله )"نشته بل کوم څښټتن يا معبود پرته د الله(ج) نه او محمد(ص) د الله(ج) پيغمبر دی." د دې لپاره چې څوک مسلمان شي، نو سړي ته پکار ده چې دغه پورتنی شهادت د يو څو شاهدانو مخکې ووايي او پرې ايمان راوړي. او که چېرته يو څوک غواړي چې اسلام ته راشي نو هغه يا هغې ته پکار ده چې بايد د زړه له صدق نه وغواړي او بيا د دې نه مخکې چې شهادت ووايي نو پکار ده چې د شهادت په اصلي مانا او مفهوم پوه وي.
مسلمانان په دې عقيده دي چې الله(ج) انسانانو ته خپل پيغام د محمد(ص) او د نورو پيغمبرانو لخوا لکه آدم(ع)، نوح(ع)، ابراهيم(ع)، موسی(ع) او عيسی(ع) له لورې په بېلابېلو وختونو کې رالېږلی. مسلمانان په دې عقيده هم دي چې محمد(ص) د الله(ج) وروستنی پيغمبر و او د هغه نه وروسته تر قيامته بل هېڅ کوم پيغمبر نه راځي. نو ددې پخاطر مسلمانان بايد د محمد(ص) په لارښوونې تر قيامته پورې عمل وکړي.
مسلمانان پدې عقيده دي چې قران د انسانانو د لارښوونې يو داسې کتاب دی چې تر اوسه پکې هېچا ګوتې نه دي وهلي او پدې کتاب کې هېڅ کومه نيمګړتيا نشته، او هېڅ کله به پکې بدلون را نه شي، او دا د خدای له لورې انسانانو ته وروستی نازل شوی کتاب دی. مسلمانان دا هم وايي چې د انجيل او تورات هغه اسماني کتابونه دي چې د بېلابېلو مذهبي فرقو له لورې پکې لاسوهنې شوي په بل ډول سره ليکل شوي او په ناسمه توګه تعبير شوي او د دغو اسماني کتابونو اصلي بڼې اوس نه شته او د وخت په تېرېدو سره خلکو هماغه لومړني لارښوونې چې په اصلي اسماني کتابونو کې وه هېر کړي، او يا يې هم درغلي پکې کړې. نو ددغه ليد پر بنسټ الله(ج) انسانانو ته د لارښوونې لپاره قرآن راولېږه چې په دې کې هماغه د اصلي انجيل او تورات لارښوونو سره سره د هغو وختونو د خلکو چې پېغمبران به يې ځورول او وژل به يې او د الله(ج) له احکامو د سرغړونې سره سره يې د خپل زاتي ګټو لپاره د الله(ج) په کلام کې چې بدعتونه راوستلي دا ټول تاريخ ثبت دی.
مسلمانان دا هم وايي چې اسلام هماغه دين دی چې د آدم(ع) له وختونو نه او د نورو پيغمبرانو په وختونو کې هم وه، او دغو ټولو پيغمبرانو د همدغه مذهب په لار د تلو ټينګار کړی. اسلامي کتابونه او ليکنې د يهوديت او عيسويت د هغو اصلي لارښوونو نه راوتلي چې د ابراهيم(ع) په وختونو کې يې ښوونې شوي نو د همدغه پخاطر دا درېواړه مذهبونه يعنی يهوديت، عيسويت او اسلام چې درېواړه سره ګډې ريښې لري، د ابراهيمي دينونو په نامه سره هم يادېږي. په قرآن عظيم الشان کې يهوديانو او عيسويانو ته د اهل الکتاب يا هغه خلک چې کتابونه ورباندې نازل شوي، په نامه اشاره شوې ده.
اسلام يو دين دی، دين د ژوندون لار مانا لري او يا هم په بله وينا د لارښوونې لار.

"د قرآن شريف له مخې مسلمانان بايد په خپل پاک رب باندې ايمان راوړي او د هغه وحدانيت ته د تسليمېدو سره سره، د الله(ج) په ټولو وحيو، نازل شوو کتابونو، د الله(ج) په پرښتو، د الله(ج) په پيغمبرانو او د قيامت په ورځ بايد ايمان ولري."[12] په همدې توګه، نور عقايد هم شته چې د اسلام د دوه لويو فرقو تر مېنځ پکې د تعبيرونو توپير شته. د تشيع د لارې خلکو کې د امامت يو سياسي او روحاني لارښوونې يو نظام دود دی.[13]

مسلمانان په دې ګروهه دي چې الله(ج) انسانانو ته خپل وروستی رسول محمد(ص) ورلېږلی دی. او پر محمد(ص) يې قرآن نازل کړی چې وروستی اسماني کتاب دی. د قرآن د نزول موده پوره دوه لسيزې وخت نيولی.[14] په اسلام کې پيغمبران، خدای ته نژدې هغه انسانان دي چې خدای تعالی يې د خپل پيغام رسولو په موخه په انسانانو کې غوره کوي. مسلمانان په دې هم عقيده لري چې پيغمبران انسانان دي چې خدای ورته د انسانانو د لارښوونې، عبرت او د خپلو ادعاوؤ د ثبوت په خاطر د معجزو د ښودلو توان ورکړی. په اسلام کې پيغمبران هغه انسانان دي چې تر نورو انسانانو په تقوا او نېکۍ کې تکامل ته رسېدلي او همدوی د خدای غوره، بې مثاله بنده ګان دي چې خدای د پرښتو له لارې خپل پيغام همدوی ته د وحيو په بڼه ور رسوي.[15] د اسلامي زده کړو نه داسې څرګندېږي چې د آدم نه وروسته د خدای ټول پيغمبرانو د اسلام د دين تبليغ او دعوت کړی، دا هغه دين دی چې يو خدای الله(ج) د معبود په توګه راپېژندلی. په قرآن کې اسلام د "هغه ازلي طبيعت چې پر بنسټ يې خدای مخلوقات خلق کړل",[16] راپېژندل شوی او په قران کې دا هم راغلي چې د مسلمان ځانګړی نوم د ابراهيم لخوا د دې دين لارويانو ته ورکړ شوی.[17]

د تاريخ له مخې د اسلام دين په ۷مه پېړۍ کې په عربستان کې رامېنځ ته شوی.[18] په اسلامي ليکنو کې يهوديت او عيسويت هغه دوه دينونه دي چې د ابراهيم(ع) پيغمبر د لارښوونو وروسته د بېلابېلو پيغمبرانو په وخت کې رامېنځ ته شوي. په قرآن کې يهوديان او عيسويان د اهل الکتاب يا د کتابونو د خلکو په توګه پېژندل شوي، او د هغو خلکو نه چې ډېر خدايان پالي او عبادت يې کوي، تر مېنځ په ښکاره توپير پېژندل کېږي. مسلمانان په دې عقيده دي چې د پخوانيو اسماني کتابونو لکه زبور، تورات او انجيل سپېڅلي کتابونه د تاريخ په بېلابېلو پړاؤونو کې د ترجمې او متن په برخه کې تحريف شوي او اوس همدا سپېڅلي کتابونه پخپلو آرنيو بڼو هېڅ نه شته.

د عقيدې شپږ ارکان

مسلمانان شپږ بنسټيزه ارکانونو باندې عقيده لري:

  1. د الله(ج) په وحدانيت باندې ايمان راوړل او يواځی الله(ج) ته عبادت او اطاعت کول او د هغه نه مرسته غوښتل توحيد.
  2. د الله(ج) په پيغمبرانو باندې ايمان راوړل (انبيا‌ء) چې ټول پېغمبران (رسول) د الله(ج) له خوا رالېږل شوي. (د اسلام پېغمبران وګورۍ.)
  3. په اسماني کتابونو عقيده(کتب):
    • په ابراهيمي صحيفو (ابراهيم(ع) باندې نازل شوې صحيفې)
    • په تورات باندې ايمان راوړل چې همدا کتاب پر موسی(ع) باندې نازل شوی.
    • په زبور باندې ايمان راوړل چې همدا کتاب پر داود(ع) باندې نازل شوی.
    • په انجيل باندې ايمان راوړل چې همدا کتاب پر عيسی(ع) باندې نازل شوی.
    • په قرآن باندې ايمان راوړل چې همدا کتاب پر محمد(ص) باندې نازل شوی.
  4. د الله(ج) په پرښتو باندې.(ملايکه).
  5. په قيامت او وروسته د مرګ نه د بيا ژوندي کېدلو عقيده (قيامة) (په جنت او دوزخ عقيده). (يادونه: کله ناکله دغه وروستۍ موضوع باندې ځانګړی بحث کېږی, او په همدې توګه د عقيدې ارکان اوو ته رسېږي.)
  6. په قسمت عقيده(تقدير).

د اسلام بنسټيزه عقيده په پښتو ژبه :

"زه شهادت ورکوم چې پرته د الله تعالی د ذات نه بل کوم ذات نه شته؛ او زه شهادت ورکوم چې محمد(ص) د هغه پيغمبر دی."
"زه په الله(ج) ايمان راوړم؛ او د هغه په ملايکو؛ او د هغه په کتابونو؛ او د هغه په پيغمبرانو؛ او د محشر په ورځ؛ او په تقدير؛ او ټول شيان د الله(ج) له خوا نه دي، او پس د مرګ نه ژوندون حق دی."

د اسلام پينځه بنسټونه

د حج د لمانځنو يو منظر. په مکه کې کعبې، مسجد الحرام ته سفر د اسلامي فرايضو څخه يو فرض دی چې هر مسلمان يې په ټول ژوند کې يو ځل ترسره کړي.

د مسلمانانو دوه لويې فرقې سني او شعيه مسلمانان جوړوي. په اسلامي نړئ کې د شعيه ګانو په پرتله ډېرئ مسلمانان سنيان دي، خو په څينو هېوادونو کې لکه د منڅنئ آسيا هېوادونه ايران او عراق بيا شعيه مسلمانان ډېرکئ مذهبي ډله جوړوي. خو په نورو هېوادونو کط لکه سعودي عربستان، اندونيزيا او پاکستان کې سني مسلمان د هغه هېوادونو په مذهبي ټولنو کې ډېرکۍ برخه جوړوي.

د سني مسلمانانو بنسټيزه ارکان د اسلام پينځه ستنو په نامه يادېږي2، خو شيعه مسلمانان بيا يو څه مختلفه نومونپوهنه، چې د سني مسلمانانو د پينځه اهمو بنسټونو تر څنګ، د دين ريښې او لس عمده اعمال د دې مذهب د طريقو نه ګڼل کېږي. خو ټول مسلمانان بيا په همدې پينځه بنسټيزو فرايضو او ګروهو سره پوهاوی او سره يوه خوله دي چې سني مسلمانان يې د اسلام د پينځه ستنو په نوم پېژني او شيعه مسلمانان يې د دين د څانګو او ريښو اهم عناصر بولي.

  • شهادت: د تصديق په مانا دی، چې يو مسلمان د الله (ج) نه پرته بل څوک د عبادت وړ نه ګڼي او همداراز د الله(ج) د وحدانيت (توحيد) او د محمد (ص) د الله (ج) رسول (نبوت) او غلام په توګه مني .
  • لمونځ: هره ورځ پينځه وخته لمونځ کول.
  • روژه: د روژې په مياشت کې د لمرخاته نه تر لمرپرېواته روژه نيول.
  • زکات: زکات ورکول.
  • حج:د مکی زیارت په ټولو مسلمانانو باندی په ژوند کې یوځل فرض دی او هغه هم په هغو کسانو باندې چې د ادا کولو وس یې ولري.

شعيه او سنيان دواړه په لاندنيو ګروهو باندې باور لري، خو دغه دوه فرقې همدا عقايد په بېلابېلو ډلبنديو وېشي او هره ډله ورته ځانګړی تعبير لري:

هغه عقايد چې د شيعه مذهب لارويان پرې معتقد دي او سني مسلمانان پرې عقيده نه لري هغه دا دي::

  • امامت: ديني لارښوونه، ديني مشري، ديني رهبري. د علي او د هغه د اولاد رهبري او امامت د خدای لخوا نه د لارښوونې لپاره ټاکل شوی و.
  • تولا: د اهل البيت او د هغوی د لارويانو سره مينه.
  • تبارة: د اهل البيت د دښمنانو نه ځان بېلول او ليري والی.
  • خمس: د ګټې لپاره د ماليې ورکړه.

که څه هم چې داسې مسلمانان هم شته چې نه د تشيع او نه هم د سني په ډلو کې ځانونه شمېري او دا هغه مسلمانان دي چې د قرآني دلايلو له مخې په اسلام کې د فرقې او د ډلې جوړول حرام ګڼي، دا هغه مسلمانان دي چې په ساده توګه ځانونه 'مسلمانان' بولي.

   
اسلام
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ
   
اسلام

الانعام سورت, ۱۵۹ آيت


"هغه څوک چې ځانونه په ډلو وېشي هغه زموږ د ډلې خلک نه دي. د هغوی فېصله الله(ج) ته مالومه ده، الله(ج) به هغوی له هر هغه څه نه خبر کړي کوم چې دوی ترسره کړي."

خدای

آرنۍ ليکنې: الله / خدای

په اسلام کې تر ټولو لومړنی بنسټيزه موخه د خدای د وحدانيت منل دي چې دې ته توحيد وايي. په اسلام کې توحيد يو مطلق امر دی چې ترې هېڅ انکار نه کېږي او دا هڅکله يوه نسبي او يا هم په کومه بله مانا د نسبي شراکت مانا نه ورکوي. د قرآن مجيد په سورة الاخلاص کې خدای داسې راپېژندل شوی:

ووايه "خدای هغه دی، يوازې او بې ساری. الله تل پايېدونکی، په بشپړه توګه له ځان نه بسيا مالک. نه څوک يې زېږولي، او نه له چا نه زېږېدلی. او د الله په شان هېڅ بل څه نه شته."

په عربي ژبه کې الله د خدای په مانا دی. د آرپوهنې له مخې دا لغت د الهه "معبود" لغت سره ډېر نژدې دی، د الله نوم د عيسوي او يهودي عربانو لخوا هم د خپل معبود په يادولو کې کارېږي، دغه نوم د محمد نه مخکې مخينه لري او د دغه ځانګړی نوم مخينه د ابراهيمي مذهبونو د خدای نه پرته د يو بل معبود نورې توپيري ځانګړنې نه څرګندوي.

د "الله" نوم يو جمع او يا د جنس نوم نه دی، دا يو خاص نوم دی، دا نوم د "خدای" د نوم سره توپير لري، دا په دې سبب چې د خدای نوم د جمع بڼه لري او جنسيت هم ترې څرګندېدلای شي د ساري په توګه خدايان چې د همدې نوم جمع بڼه ده. په اسلام کې د الله پېژندنه په قرآن کې داسې شوې:

   
اسلام
فَاطِرُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَمِنَ الأَنْعَامِ أَزْوَاجًا يَذْرَؤُكُمْ فِيهِ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ
   
اسلام

الشوری سورت, ۱۱ آيت


"(الله دی) د اسمانونو او زمکې جوړونکی: هغه ستاسو او د څارويو له مېنځه ستاسو لپاره جوړې جوړې کړي، او په دې توګه هغه تاسې په ګڼ شمېر جوړ کړي ياست: داسې هېڅ کوم بل معبود نشته پرته له (الله) نه او د هغه په شان هېڅ نشته، او الله دی چې هر څه اوري او ليدلی شي"

The implicit usage of the definite article in Allah linguistically indicates the divine unity. Muslims believe that the God they worship is the same as the Judeo-Christian God, i.e. the God of Abraham. However, Muslims reject the Christian theology concerning the trinity of God (the doctrine of the Trinity which regards Jesus as the eternal Son of God), seeing it as akin to polytheism. Quoting from the Qur'an, sura An-Nisa(۴) :۱۷۱:

"O People of the Scripture! Do not transgress the limits of your religion, and do not say about God except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was only a messenger of God, and His word that He had sent to Mary, and a revelation from Him. Therefore, you shall believe in GOD and His messengers. You shall not say, "Trinity". You shall refrain from this for your own good. God is only one God. Be He glorified; He is much too glorious to have a son. To Him belongs everything in the heavens and everything on earth. God suffices as Lord and Master."

No Muslim visual images or depictions of God exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry and are thus disdained. Such aniconism can also be found in Judeo-Christian theology. Moreover, most Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the many divine attributes mentioned in the Qur'an. All but one Sura (chapter) of the Qur'an begins with the phrase "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful". These are regarded as the most important divine attributes, at least in the sense that Muslims repeat them most frequently during their prayers (salat) and throughout their daily lives.


د اسلام بنسټيز اصل توحيد دی—توحيد په يوه او يوازيني خدای عقيدې ته وايي. په اسلام کې د خدای لپاره د عربي ژبې اصطلاح الله کارېږي; اکثراً عالمان په دې عقيده دي چې دا اصطلاح د ''ال- (د مشخص کولو ادات) او اله (معبود) د وييونو نه اشتقاق شوي چې مانا يې يوازيني خدای ته اشاره کوي، خو ځينې نور عالمان بيا د همدې نوم آر او اصل د آرامايک ژبې لغت الهه ګڼي.[19] د اسلام په پينځو بنسټيزو ستنو کې لومړنۍ ستنه يې توحيد بلل کېږي چې د شهادة يا (منښت) په ډول اظهارېږي، شهادة داسې ده چې: 'له حقيقي معبود نه پرته بل خدای نشته، او محمدص د خدای ټاکل شوی پيغمبر دی'. په دوديزه اسلامپوهنه کې، خدای د انساني عقل او پوهاوي نه پورته معبود ګڼل کېږي; مسلمانان نه شي کولای چې خدای په يوه بڼه انځور کړي يوازې له دې چې بايد د داسې لوی معبود عبادت او اطاعت وکړي او خدای خپل يوازينی ساتونکی او ژغورونکی وګڼي. که څه هم چې مسلمانان عيسیع د يو پيغمبر په توګه پېژني، خو دوی بيا د عيسويانو د درېګونۍ عقيده، چې مسلمانان يې د شرک بولي په کلکه ردوي. په اسلامپوهنه کې عيسیع د نورو پيغمبرانو په څېر د خدای بنده او د انسان په توګه پېژندل کېږي او د عيسويانو هغه عقيده چې عيسیع د خدای د ځوی په توګه پېژني په کلکه ردوي;[20] د قرآن په يوه سوره کې د خدای څرګندونه داسې شوې "ووايه هغه الله دی يوازې، الله هېچا ته اړ نه دی او ټول هغه ته اړ دي، نه د هغه څوک اولاد دی او نه هغه د چا اولاد دی او هېڅوک د هغه سيال نشته."[21]

قران عظيم الشان

د قرآن لومړنۍ سوره الفاتحه د قران عظيم شان د لاسي نسخې يو انځور.

قرآن شريف د مسلمانانو سپېڅلی کتاب دی او دوی په همدغه آسماني کتاب باندې ايمان راوړی. د قرآن لغوي مانا “لوستنه” ده. مسلمانان په دې باور دي چې قرآن يو آسماني کتاب دی چې د الله (جل جلاله) په وروستي نبي حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم باندې نازل شوی دی. دا سپېڅلی کتاب د ۶۱۰ ز. کال نه تر ۶۳۲ ز. پورې په بېلابېلو وختونو کې د الله تعالی له لوري او د حضرت جبراييل عليه السلام په منځګړتوب پر حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم باندې د وحيو په څېر نازل شوی. چې د وحيو په وختونو کې حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم حفظ کړی او بيا د الله تعالی د وروستي نبي د يارانو له خوا راټول شوی او پر ډبرليکونو او پاڼو ليکل شوی.

مسلمانان په دې باور دي چې له کومې ورځ نه الله تعالی قرآن شريف پر محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم نازل کړی له هماغې ورځې نه تر ننه پورې قرآن شريف په خپلې آرنۍ بڼې پاتې دی چې بيا د حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم نه وروسته د هغه لارويانو چې قرآن شريف يې حفظ کړی وه وليکه او په همدې توګه يې قرآن شريف په ليکنې بڼه خوندي کړ. مسلمان عالمان ددې خبرې منښته کوي چې قرآن شريف د اسلام د درېيم خليفه حضرت عثمان (رض) د واکمنۍ پر مهال په ليکلې بڼه سره راټول شو، چې په دې توګه د قرآن شريف د بېلابېلو برخو د راټولولو او سره يوځای کولو نېټه له ۶۵۰ ز پېر نه تر ۶۵۶ ز پېر پورې ښودل شوی. او وروسته له دې چې قرآن شريف ليکلې بڼه وموندله نو بيا د هماغه خليفه د واکمنۍ پر مهال د قرآن شريف لمېسې جوړې شوې او د اسلامي خلافت بېلابېلو ولايتونو ته يې لمېسې ولېږل شوې.

There are numerous traditions, and many conflicting academic theories, as to the provenance of the Qur'anic verses that were eventually assembled into a single volume. (This is covered in greater detail in Qur'an). Most Muslims accept the account recorded in several hadith, which state that Abu Bakr, The First Caliph, ordered his personal secretary Zayd ibn Thabit to collect and record all the authentic verses of the Qur'an, as preserved in written form or oral tradition. Zayd's written collection, privately treasured by Prophet Muhammad's wife Hafsa bint Umar, was, according to Muslim sources, later used by Uthman and is thus the basis of today's Qur'an.

Uthman's version, organized the suras roughly in order of length (excepting the brief opening surah Al-Fatiha), with the longest suras at the start of the Qur'an and the shortest ones at the end. More conservative views state that the order of most suras was divinely set. Later scholars have struggled to put the suras in chronological order, and among Muslim commentators, at least, there is a rough consensus as to which suras were revealed in Mecca and which at Medina, with distinctive characteristics observed within these two subgroups. Some suras (e.g. surat Iqra) are thought to have been revealed in parts at separate times.

To understand the notion of "variants" within the received Qur'anic text, one must understand that Arabic had not yet fully developed as a written language. The Qur'an was first recorded in written form (date uncertain) in the Hijazi, Mashq, Ma'il, and Kufic scripts; these scripts write consonants only and do not supply vowels. (Imagine an English text that wrote the word 'bed' as "BD," and required the reader to infer, from context, that the reference was to "bed" - and not to 'bad" or "bide.") Because there were differing oral traditions of recitation as non-native Arabic speakers converted to Islam, there was some disagreement as to the exact reading of many (vowel-free) verses. Eventually, scripts were developed that used diacritical markings (known as points) to indicate the vowels. For hundreds of years after Uthman's recension, Muslim scholars argued as to the correct pointing and reading of Uthman's (unpointed) official text.کينډۍ:Citation needed Eventually, most commentators accepted seven variant readings (qira'at) of the Qur'an as canonical, while agreeing that the differences among the seven are minor and do not affect the meaning of the text.

The form of the Qur'an most used today is the Al-Azhar text of ۱۹۲۳, prepared by a committee at the prestigious Cairo university of Al-Azhar.

The Qur'an early became a focus of Muslim devotion and eventually a subject of theological controversy among skeptics. In the ۸th century, the Mu'tazilis claimed that the Qur'an was created in time and was not eternal. Their opponents, of various schools, claimed that the Qur'an was eternal and perfect, existing in heaven before it was revealed to Muhammad. The Ashari theology (which ultimately became predominant) held that the Qur'an was uncreated.

Most Muslims regard paper copies of the Qur'an with extreme veneration, wrapping them in a clean cloth, keeping them on a high shelf, and washing as for prayers before reading the Qur'an. Old Qur'ans are not destroyed as wastepaper, but burned.

اکثره مسلمانان د قرآن ځينې برخې او يا ټول قرآن په آرنۍ ژبه (عربي) حفظ کوي. هغه څوک چې قرآن يې په بشپړه توګه حفظ کړی وي د حافظ په نامه يادېږي. په مسلمانانو کې د قرآن حفظ کول د هېښتيا خبره نه ده، نن ورځ د نړۍ په بېلابېلو هېوادونو کې په ميليونونو حافظين ژوندي دي چې د ټول قرآن متن يې له ياده زده دی.

د عقيدې د پيل د ورځو نه اکثره مسلمانان په دې اند دي چې قرآن يو مکمل اسماني کتاب دی چې په عربي ژبه نازل شوی. د دغه کتاب ژباړې د انساني هلو ځلو او د انساني تېروتنو نه تشې هڅې نه دي، همداراز په ژباړو کې د مومنانو د الهامي شاعرۍ کمښت څوک په قرآن کې موندلی شي. نو په همدې خاطر د قرآن ژباړې يوازې پر قرآن تبصرې ګڼل کېږي او يا هم د مطلب ژباړه، او پخپله د قرآن نه. او په همدې دليل د قرآن په ډېرو نوو چاپ شويو نخسو کې د عربي متن په يوه مخ او د متن ژباړه په بل مخ راغلې.

قرآن شريف له ۱۱۴ سورتونو يا څپرکو نه جوړ شوی دی چې همدا ټول سورتونه ۶،۲۳۶ آيتونه لري. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[22] The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[23] Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[24]

The word Qur'an means "recitation". When Muslims speak in the abstract about "the Qur'an", they usually mean the scripture as recited in Arabic rather than the printed work or any translation of it. To Muslims, the Qur'an is perfect only as revealed in the original Arabic; translations are necessarily deficient because of language differences, the fallibility of translators, and the impossibility of preserving the original's inspired style. Translations are therefore regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an, or "interpretations of its meaning", not as the Qur'an itself.[25]

پرښتې

د اسلام په دين کې د الله (جل جلاله) په پرښتو عقيده د ايمان جز ګڼل کېږي. په عربي ژبه پرښتې ته (ملک) وايي چې د همدغه لغت مانا ده "پيغام رسونکی"، په عبراني ژبه کې همداسې ورته نوم (ملخ) د پرښتې په مانا ده خو په يوناني ژبه بيا پرښتې ته (انجېلوس) وايي. د قراني مالوماتو له مخې، پرښتې د خپلې خوښې واک په لاس کې نه لري، او په مکمله توګه د الله تعالی په عبادت کې بوختې دي.[26] قران کې دا هم راغلي چې د پرښتو په کارونو کې د الله تعالی حکمونه منل او د الله تعالی پيغامونو رسولو برسېره، پرښتې تل د الله په ثنا او صفت په عبادت بوختې دي، او د انسانانو اعمال ثبتوي ددې سره سره پرښتې د الله (جل جلاله) په حکم د انسانانو د مړينې په وخت کې روحونه باسي. داسې هم انګېرل کېږي چې پرښتې د انسان او الله تعالی ترمېنځ منځګړتوب کوي. قرآن شريف، پرښتې موږ ته داسې راڅرګندوي لکه "يو ډول پيغام رسونکي چې دوه، درې يا څلور جوړه وزرې لري: خدای هماغسې خپل مخلوق جوړوي څنګه چې يې خوښه وي..."[27]

محمد(ص)

حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم (c. ۵۷۰ – جولای ۶ ۶۳۲) د الله تعالی وروستی نبي، يو مذهبي، سياسي او پوځي عرب و چې د همدغه نبي د اسلام د دين بيرغ لوړ کړ او د اديانو په تاريخ کې يې د اسلام نوم هم وځلاوه. مسلمانان په دې ګروهه دي چې حضرت محمد (صلی الله علیه وسلم) د يوه نوي مذهب بنسټ ايښودونکی نه دی، بلکه د اسلام د اصلي دين چې د حضرت آدم عليه السلام او حضرت ابراهيم او د نورو پيغمبرانو دين و، د هماغه دين بيا پرځای کونکی دی. مسلمانان په دې عقيده هم دي چې حضرت محمد د الله تعالی وروستی پيغمبر او د نورو پيغمبرانو په ډله کې د لويې مرتبې خاوند پيغمبر و.[28] دروند پیغمبر د خپل خوږ ژوند په وروستیو ۲۳ کلونو کې، یانې د ۴۰ کلني عمر په پیل کې د الله له لوري د ایاتو د نازلولو لړۍ پیل شوه، چې د دغو ایاتونو ټولګه د قرآن په نوم یادیږي چې دغه آیتونه بیا د صحابه و لخوا یاد کیدل. [29]

دوتنه:Masjid Nabawi. Medina, Saudi Arabia.jpg
مسجد النبوي ("د پيغمبر(صلی الله علیه وسلم) جومات") په مدينه کې د حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم مقبره هم ده.

په دغه کې وخت محمد ص د مکې خلکو ته په تبلیغ باندې پیل وکړ، تر څو دوې له شرک څخه راوباسي او د اسلام لور ته یې راوبلي. که څه چې محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم ځینې کسان اسلام ته راواړول خو په دې کار سره دی او د ده لارویان د مکې د چارواکو او لارښودګرانو لخوا تر زور او اذیت لاندې راغلل. چې بیا وروسته له ۱۳ کلنو څخه په کال ۶۲۲ کې محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم او نور مسلمانان له مکې څخه مدینه (رسما یثرب نومیږي) ته کډه شول.

There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad established his political and religious authority. Within years, two battles had been fought against Meccan forces: the Battle of Badr in ۶۲۴, which was a Muslim victory, and the Battle of Uhud in ۶۲۵, which ended inconclusively. Conflict with Medinan Jewish clans who opposed the Muslims led to their exile, enslavement or death, and the Jewish enclave of Khaybar was subdued. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.[30] By ۶۲۹ Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless Conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in ۶۳۲ he ruled over the Arabian peninsula.[31]

In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the Sunnah (literally "trodden path"). This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith ("reports"), which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. The classical Muslim jurist ash-Shafi'i (d. ۸۲۰) emphasized the importance of the Sunnah in Islamic law, and Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives. The Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Qur'an.[32]

د قيامت ورځ

د "جزا په ورځ"، يعنی د قيامت په ورځې ايمان لرل د اسلام يوه بنسټيزه ګروهه ده. مسلمانان په دې عقيده دي چې د قيامت ورځ د الله تعالی له خوا ټاکل شوی چې په يوه ځانګړي وخت کې به وي خو انسانانو ته يې وخت نه دی څرګند. د قيامت د ورځې د محکمې او کړاونه په هکله په قرآن او حديثونو کې هم بیان شوي، او همدارنګه د اسلامي علماوو په تفسيرونو کې. The Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. It states that resurrection will be followed by the gathering of mankind, culminating in their judgment by God.[33]

The Qur'an lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief, usury and dishonesty. Muslims view paradise (jannah) as a place of joy and bliss, with Qur'anic references describing its features and the physical pleasures to come. There are also references to a greater joy—acceptance by God (ridwān).[34] Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.[35]

تقدير

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'…"[36] For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. In Islamic theology, divine preordainment does not suggest an absence of God's indignation against evil, because any evils that do occur are thought to result in future benefits men may not be able to see. According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[37]

The Shi'a understanding of predestination is called "divine justice" (Adalah). This doctrine, originally developed by the Mu'tazila, stresses the importance of man's responsibility for his own actions. In contrast, the Sunni deemphasize the role of individual free will in the context of God's creation and foreknowledge of all things.[38]

اسلام او دا آخرت په ورځ ایمان

Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world) and the final judgment of humanity. Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfilment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul. In Islamic belief, the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (a fiery Hell, from the Hebrew ge-hinnom or "valley of Hinnom"; usually rendered in English as Gehenna). A significant portion of the Qur'an deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details.

تنظيمونه

اسلامي واک

داسې هېڅ کوم رسمي اسلامي واک نشته چې په اسلام کې د يو کس د منلو او يا هم د اسلامي ټولنې (اُمة يانې ملت يا کورنۍ) نه د رټلو واک په لاس کې ولري. اسلام خپلې دروازې پرته د کوم توپير، تعصب، رنګ، جنس، عمر او پخواني عقايدو نه د ټولو پر مخ پرانيستې دي او ټولو ته په دغه دين کې د ننوتلو اجازه شته. د مسلمان کېدو لپاره همدومره بس ده چې يو څوک د زړه له کومي په رسمي توګه د يو څو تنو مسلمانانو په مينځ کې د اسلام دين ومني او شهادت ووايي. شهادت هغه بيان دی چې مسلمان پرې د يوه خدای د وحدانيت او د حضرت محمد (صلی الله علیه وسلم) پر نبوت او په خپل ژوند کې د هغه د لارښوونو د پلي کولو د تکل اقرار بلل کېږي. د شهادت په نه وييلو سره هېڅوک نه شي کولای چې مسلمان شي. د مسلمان لپاره د شهادت نه وروسته د اسلامي حکمونو پلي کول فرض دي او همدا رنګه يو مسلمان بايد د اسلامي اخلاقو خاوند هم وي ترڅو هغه په يوه اسلامي ټولنه کې د منلو وړ وګرځي.

اسلامي قانون

د اسلامي قانون نوم شريعت دی، چې د مسلمانو عالمانو لخوا د قرآن او حديث په رڼا کې وضع شوی. قرآن شريف د شريعت او اسلامي قضايه نظام لومړنۍ سرچينه ده، تر دې وروسته د حضرت محمد صلی الله عليه وسلم سنة او د لومړنۍ اسلامي ټولنې دود او دستورونه په دوهم پړاو کې ځای لري. سنت د احاديثو په شننو کې رامېنځ ته شوی، او احاديث د حضرت محمد (صلی الله علیه وسلم) لارښوونو ته وايي چې مسلمانانو ته يې کړي. اجماع چې د يوې مسلمانې ټولنې د احصايې په مانا ده، د قياس سره يوځای د اسلامي قانون او د شريعت درېيمه او څلورمه سرچينه جوړوي.

په اسلامي قانون کې د ژوند د هر اړخ په اړه بحث شوی دی. د دولت او حکومت د چلولو او د باندنيو اړيکو د ساتلو نه نيولې آن تر ورځيني ژوند و ژواک پورې د هرې ستونزې او مسلې لپاره د حل لار څېړل شوې او د اسلامي احکامو پر بنسټ يې د پلي کولو لارښوونه شوې.د اسلامي قانون په اړه په څرګنده ډول په قرآن شريف کې چې کوم احکامات راغلي هغه د حدودو په نامه يادېږي چې په دغو لارښوونو کې د قتل نه ډډه، د واده نه پرته د جنسي اړيکو د ساتلو نه ځان ساتنه، د شرابو او الکولو د څښلو او د قمار نه اجتناب يې غټ ټکي جوړوي. په قرآن کې د وراثت، د واده، د ټپي کولو او وژلو په بدل کې د تدابيرو نيولو او په هم دې توګه د روژې د نيولو، د زکات ورکولو او لمونځ کولو په باب هم په تفصيل سره د حکمونو يادونه شوې. However, the prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so how they are applied in practice varies. Islamic scholars, the ulema, have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these broad rules, supplemented by the hadith reports of how Muhammad and his companions interpreted them. See Sin for further discussion about the concept of sin and its atonement according to the Islamic law.

In current times, not all Muslims understand the Qur'an in its original Arabic. Thus, when Muslims are divided in how to handle situations, they seek the assistance of a mufti (Islamic judge) who can advise them based on Islamic Sharia and hadith.

The Sharia (literally: "the path leading to the watering place") is Islamic law formed by traditional Islamic scholarship. In Islam, Sharia is the expression of the divine will, and "constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon a Muslim by virtue of his religious belief".[39]

Islamic law covers all aspects of life, from matters of state, like governance and foreign relations, to issues of daily living. The Qur'an defines hudud as the punishments for five specific crimes: unlawful intercourse, false accusation of unlawful intercourse, consumption of alcohol, theft, and highway robbery. The Qur'an and Sunnah also contain laws of inheritance, marriage, and restitution for injuries and murder, as well as rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitions may be broad, so their application in practice varies. Islamic scholars (known as ulema) have elaborated systems of law on the basis of these rules and their interpretations.[40]

Fiqh, or "jurisprudence", is defined as the knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. The method Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al-fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order: the Qur'an, the Sunnah (actions and sayings of Muhammad), the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas). For early Islamic jurists, theory was less important than pragmatic application of the law. In the ۹th century, the jurist ash-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law by codifying the principles of jurisprudence (including the four fundamental roots) in his book ar-Risālah.[41]

مذهب او رياست

د اسلامي قانون له مخې د مذهب او رياست تر مېنځ ژورې اړيکې دي چې په ډېريو اسلامي هېوادونو کې ديني عالمان د قاضيانو په توګه په رسمي ډول دندې ترسره کوي. In practice, Islamic rulers frequently bypassed the Sharia courts with a parallel system of so-called "Grievance courts" over which they had sole control. As the Muslim world came into contact with Western secular ideals, Muslim societies responded in different ways. Turkey has been governed as a secular state ever since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. In contrast, the ۱۹۷۹ Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini.[42]

ارتداد او کفر

په سيمه ايزو اسلامي ټولنو کې چې يو وګړی په ارتداد او کفر پېژندل کېږي نو هغه بيا د هماغې ټولنې نه رټل کېږي. په اسلامي رياستونو کې ارتداد او کفر د اسلامي رياست پر وړاندې جرم ګڼل کېږي او داسې يو مجرم ته سزا ورکول کېږي چې اکثراً د مرګ سزا وي.

مذهبي فرقې

آرنۍ ليکنه: د اسلام مذهبي فرقې

لکه د نورو دينونو په شان په اسلام کې هم يو شمېر مذهبي فرقې شته چې د دوی ټولو ګروهه يا عقيده يوه ده خو په شرعي او قانوني توګه په دغو فرقو کې اهم توپيرونه ليدل کېږي. اسلام په دوه لويو فرقو وېشل شوی چې د سني او تشيع فرقې يې دوه لويې فرقې دي. تصوف بيا ځانته بله مذهبي ډله ده چې په دې کې د اسلام معمايي تصريف لور ته ډېر پام اړول شوی. د ځينو سرچينو له مخې د نړۍ نژدې ۸۵٪ مسلمانان د سني لويې فرقې په لار روان دي او پاتې ۱۵٪ مسلمانان د تشيع د مذهب مننونکي دي، په همدې توګه بيا په شيعه ګانو کې هم وړې مذهبي فرقې شته.[43]

اهل سنت

Divisions of Islam

سني مسلمانان د اسلام لويه برخه جوړوي. په عربي ژبه کې د السنة لغت مانا "اصل" او يا هم "لار" ده. سنت (د محمدص د ژوند کړه وړه) دقرآن او حديث له مخې د سني اسلام اهمه ستنه جوړوي. سنيان په دې عقيده دي چې د اسلام لومړي څلور خليفه ګان د محمدص نه وروسته برحقه او ريښتوني خليفه ګان وه؛ او خدایج د محمدص پيغمبر نه وروسته خدای بل پيغمبر نه ؤ ځانګړی کړی، او پاتې خليفه ګان بايد ټاکل شوي وای. سنيان څلور لوی قانوني مذهبونه مني چې هغه څلور لوی مذهبونه حنفي، مالکي، شافي او حنبلي دي. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim might choose any one that he or she finds agreeable, but other Islamic sects are believed to have departed from the majority by introducing innovations (bidah). There are also several orthodox theological or philosophical traditions within Sunnism. For example, the recent Salafi movement sees itself as restorationist and claims to derive its teachings from the original sources of Islam.[44]

شیعه ګان

کينډۍ:See also The Shi'a, who constitute the second-largest branch of Islam, believe in the political and religious leadership of infallible Imams from the progeny of Ali ibn Abi Talib. They believe that he, as the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was his rightful successor, and they call him the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs. To them, an Imam rules by right of divine appointment and holds "absolute spiritual authority" among Muslims, having final say in matters of doctrine and revelation.[45][46] Although the Shi'a share many core practices with the Sunni, the two branches disagree over the proper importance and validity of specific collections of hadith. The Shi'a follow a legal tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.[47] Shi'a Islam has several branches, the largest of which is the Twelvers (iṯnāʿašariyya), while the others are the Ismaili, the Seveners, and the Zaidiyyah.[48]

A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in Islam

Shi'a Muslims, the second-largest sect, differ from the Sunni in rejecting the authority of the first three caliphs. They honor different traditions (hadith) and have their own legal traditions. Shi'a scholars have a larger authority than Sunni scholars and have greater room for interpretation. The Imams play a central role in Shi'a doctrine.

The arabic word Shi'a, litarally translates into the word 'group' or 'sect'. Originally known as Shi'at Ali (the sect of Ali), the group formed shortly after the death of Ali, in Iraq. Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin of prophet Muhammad, and after marriage to Fatima, he also became Muhammad's son-in-law.

The Shi'a consist of one major school of thought known as the Ithna 'ashariyah or the "Twelvers", and a few minor schools of thought, as the "Seveners" or the "Fivers" referring to the number of infallible leaders they recognize after the death of prophet Muhammad. The term Shi'a, when used without qualification, is usually taken to be synonymous with the Ithna Ashariyya or Twelvers. Most Shi'a live in Iran, Iraq (the country where Ali passed away), Bahrain, Lebanon, India and Pakistan. A minority group (about ۴ million) of Shi'a is known as Ismaili. The Shia Ismaili sect is subdivided into Nizari Ismaili and Mustaali Bohra subsects. The Nizari Ismaili or are led by the Aga Khan and are found mainly in Pakistan, Tajikistan, Bangladesh, India, Canada and United States. The Mustaali Bohra sect is further subdivded into Dawoodi and Sulaimanis subsects. The Dawoodi Bohras are concentrated in Pakistan and India. The Sulaimani Bohras are concentrated in Yemen and Najran province of Saudi Arabia.

تصوف

Not strictly a denomination, Sufism is a mystical-ascetic form of Islam. By focusing on the more spiritual aspects of religion, Sufis strive to obtain direct experience of God by making use of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.[49] Sufism and Islamic law are usually considered to be complementary, although Sufism has been criticized by some Muslims for being an unjustified religious innovation. Most Sufi orders, or tariqas, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a.[50]

Sufism is a spiritual practice followed by both Sunni and Shi'a. Sufis generally feel that following Islamic law or jurisprudence (or fiqh) is only the first step on the path to perfect submission; they focus on the internal or more spiritual aspects of Islam, such as perfecting one's faith and fighting one's own ego (nafs). Most Sufi orders, or tariqa, can be classified as either Sunni or Shi'a. However, there are some that are not easily categorized as either Sunni or Shi'a, such as the Bektashi. Sufis are found throughout the Islamic world, from Senegal to Indonesia.

نورې طريقې

Wahhabis, as they are known by non-Wahhabis, are a smaller, more recent Sunni group. They prefer to be called Salafis. Wahhabism is a movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in the ۱۸th century in what is present-day Saudi Arabia. They classify themselves as Sunni and some claim to follow the Hanbali legal tradition. The major trend, however, is the abolition of these "schools of thoughts" (legal traditions), and the following of a more literalist interpretation. Some even regard other Sunni as heretics. The Hanbali legal tradition is the recognized official school of Islamic law in Saudi Arabia and they have had a great deal of influence on the Islamic world because of Saudi control of Mecca and Medina, the Islamic holy places, and because of Saudi funding for mosques and schools in other countries. The majority of Saudi Islamic scholars are considered as Wahhabis by other parts of the Islamic world.

Sunni and Shi'a have often clashed. Some Sunni believe that Shi'a are heretics while other Sunni recognize Shi'a as fellow Muslims. According to Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot, head of the al-Azhar University in the middle part of the ۲۰th century, "the Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shi'a al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e. The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought". Al-Azhar later distanced itself from this position.

Another sect which dates back to the early days of Islam is that of the Kharijites. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites are the Ibadhi Muslims. Ibadhism is distinguished from Shiism by its belief that the Imam (Leader) should be chosen solely on the basis of his faith, not on the basis of descent, and from Sunnism in its rejection of Uthman and Ali and strong emphasis on the need to depose unjust rulers. Ibadhi Islam is noted for its strictness, but, unlike the Kharijites proper, Ibadhis do not regard major sins as automatically making a Muslim an unbeliever. Most Ibadhi Muslims live in Oman.

Another trend in modern Islam is that which is sometimes called progressive. Followers may be called Ijtihadists. They may be either Sunni or Shi'ite, and generally favor the development of personal interpretations of Qur'an and Hadith. See: Liberal Islam

One very small group, based primarily in the United States, follows the teachings of Rashad Khalifa and calls itself the "Submitters". They reject hadith and fiqh, and say that they follow the Qur'an alone. Most Muslims of both the Sunni and the Shia sects consider this group to be heretical.

The Kharijites are a sect that dates back to the early days of Islam. The only surviving branch of the Kharijites is Ibadism. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers. The Imamate is an important topic in Ibadi legal literature, which stipulates that the leader should be chosen solely on the basis of his knowledge and piety, and is to be deposed if he acts unjustly. Most Ibadi Muslims live in Oman.[51]

The Yazidi, Druze, Ahmadiyya, Bábí, Bahá'í, Berghouata and Ha-Mim religions either emerged out of Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late fifteenth century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism.[52]

اسلامي فرضونه او عمل

پينځه بنسټيزه ستنې

Islam's basic creed (shahadah) written on a plaque in the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
Rituals of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include walking seven times around the Kaaba in Mecca.

دغه پنځه بنسټیزه ستنې د سني مسلمانانو لپاره پنځه اړینه کړنې دي.خو بیا شیعه مسلمان په اتو مذهبي کړنو کې کډون کوي کوم چې دغو پنځو بنسټیزه کړنو ته ورته والی لري: .[53] چې په لاندې ډول دي:

  • شهادت, شهادت د اسلام له بنسټیزو عقیدو یا اصولو څخه دي او باید د زړه له تله په لاندې ډول وویل شي أشهد أن لا إله إلاَّ الله و أشهد أن محمد رسول الله,یا" زه شهادت ورکوم چې دلته پرته له الله څخه بل هیڅوک د عبادت وړ ندي او زه شهادت ورکوم چې محمد د خدای رسول دي."

This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam (although technically the Shi'a do not consider the shahadah to be a separate pillar, just a belief). Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.[54]

  • لمونځ, or ritual prayer, which must be performed five times a day. (However, the Shi'a are permitted to run together the noon with the afternoon prayers, and the evening with the night prayers). Each salah is done facing towards the Kaaba in Mecca. Salah is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Salah is compulsory but flexibility in the specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. In many Muslim countries, reminders called Adhan (call to prayer) are broadcast publicly from local mosques at the appropriate times. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Qur'an.[55]
  • زکات, or alms-giving. This is the practice of giving based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all Muslims who can afford it. A fixed portion is spent to help the poor or needy, and also to assist the spread of Islam. The zakat is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to voluntary charity) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty". The Qur'an and the hadith also suggest a Muslim give even more as an act of voluntary alms-giving (sadaqah). Many Shi'ites are expected to pay an additional amount in the form of a khums tax, which they consider to be a separate ritual practice.[56]
  • روژه, or fasting during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must not eat or drink (among other things) from dawn to dusk during this month, and must be mindful of other sins. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts usually must be made up quickly.[57]
  • حج, which is the pilgrimage during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. When the pilgrim is about ten kilometers from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing, which consists of two white seamless sheets. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina. The pilgrim, or the hajji, is honored in his or her community, although Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God instead of a means to gain social standing.[58]

In addition to the khums tax, Shi'a Muslims consider three additional practices essential to the religion of Islam. The first is jihad, which is also important to the Sunni, but not considered a pillar. The second is Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf, the "Enjoining to Do Good", which calls for every Muslim to live a virtuous life and to encourage others to do the same. The third is Nahi-Anil-Munkar, the "Exhortation to Desist from Evil", which tells Muslims to refrain from vice and from evil actions and to also encourage others to do the same.[59]

اسلامي اداب او خواړه

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you"), saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health, such as the circumcision of male offspring. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims, like Jews, are restricted in their diet, and prohibited foods include pig products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.[60]

جهاد

کينډۍ:Mainarticle Jihad means "to strive or struggle," especially in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God" (al-jihad fi sabil Allah) and is considered the "sixth pillar of Islam" by a minority of Muslim authorities.[61] Jihad, in its broadest sense, is classically defined as "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation." Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the devil, and aspects of one's own self, different categories of Jihad are defined: Jihad against one's own self (self-perfection), Jihad of the tongue, Jihad of the hand, and Jihad of the sword. Jihad when used without any qualifier is understood in its military aspect.[62][63]

Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law. Under most circumstances and for most Muslims, jihad is a collective duty (fard kifaya): one whose performance by some individuals exempts the others; for the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.[64] Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad", which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare.[65] Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.[66]

تاريخ

Islam's historical development resulted in major political, economic, and military effects inside and outside the Islamic world. Within a century of Muhammad's first recitations of the Qur'an, an Islamic empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to Central Asia in the east. This new polity soon broke into civil war, and successor states fought each other and outside forces. However, Islam continued to spread into regions like Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. The Islamic civilization was one of the most advanced in the world during the Middle Ages, but was surpassed by Europe with the economic and military growth of the West. During the ۱۸th and ۱۹th centuries, Islamic dynasties such as the Ottomans and Mughals fell under the sway of European imperial powers. In the ۲۰th century new religious and political movements and newfound wealth in the Islamic world led to both rebirth and conflict.[67]

د اسلامي رياست پيل (۶۳۲–۷۵۰)

کينډۍ:See Muhammad began preaching Islam at Mecca before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in ۶۳۲, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, who was Muhammad's intimate friend and collaborator. Others added their support and Abu Bakr was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated his successor. Abu Bakr's immediate task was to avenge a recent defeat by Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".[68]

The territory of the Caliphate in the year ۷۵۰

His death in ۶۳۴ resulted in the succession of Umar as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib. These four are known as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Under them, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into Persian Empire and Byzantine territories.[69] When Umar was assassinated in ۶۴۴, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. In ۶۵۶, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. After fighting off opposition in the first civil war (the "First Fitna"), Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in ۶۶۱. Following this, Mu'awiyah, who was governor of Levant, seized power and began the Umayyad dynasty.[70]

These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. The majority accepted the legitimacy of the three rulers prior to Ali, and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that Ali was the only rightful successor; they became known as the Shi'a.[71] After Mu'awiyah's death in ۶۸۰, conflict over succession broke out again in a civil war known as the "Second Fitna". Afterward, the Umayyad dynasty prevailed for seventy years, and was able to conquer the Maghrib as well as the Al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula, former Visigothic Hispania) and the Narbonnese Gaul. While the Muslim-Arab elite engaged in conquest, some devout Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life, emphasizing rather poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Devout Muslim ascetic exemplars such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Sufism.[72]

For the Umayyad aristocracy, Islam was viewed as a religion for Arabs only;[73] the economy of the Umayyad empire was based on the assumption that a majority of non-Muslims (Dhimmis) would pay taxes to the minority of Muslim Arabs. A non-Arab who wanted to convert to Islam was supposed to first become a client of an Arab tribe. Even after conversion, these new Muslims (mawali) did not achieve social and economic equality with the Arabs. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented mawali, poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them with the help of their propagandist and general Abu Muslim, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in ۷۵۰.[74] Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished in the "Islamic Golden Age", with its capital at the cosmopolitan city of Baghdad.[75]

د اسلام زرين پېر (۷۵۰–۱۲۵۸)

Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hattin in 1187, where Jerusalem was recaptured by Saladin's Ayyubid forces

By the late ۹th century, the Abbasid caliphate began to fracture as various regions gained increasing levels of autonomy. Across North Africa, Persia, and Central Asia emirates formed as provinces broke away. The monolithic Arab empire gave way to a more religiously homogenized Muslim world where the Shia Fatimids contested even the religious authority of the caliphate. By ۱۰۵۵ the Seljuq Turks had eliminated the Abbasids as a military power, nevertheless they continued to respect the caliph's titular authority.[76] During this time expansion of the Muslim world continued, by both conquest and peaceful proselytism even as both Islam and Muslim trade networks were extending into sub-Saharan West Africa, Central Asia, Volga Bulgaria and the Malay archipelago.[1]

The Golden Age saw new legal, philosophical, and religious developments. The major hadith collections were compiled and the four modern Sunni Madh'habs were established. Islamic law was advanced greatly by the efforts of the early ۹th century jurist al-Shafi'i; he codified a method to establish the reliability of hadith, a topic which had been a locus of dispute among Islamic scholars.[77] Philosophers Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Al-Farabi sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like the ۱۱th century theologian Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali argued against them and ultimately prevailed.[78] Finally, Sufism and Shi'ism both underwent major changes in the ۹th century. Sufism became a full-fledged movement that had moved towards mysticism and away from its ascetic roots, while Shi'ism split due to disagreements over the succession of Imams.[79]

The spread of the Islamic dominion induced hostility among medieval ecclesiastical Christian authors who saw Islam as an adversary in the light of the large numbers of new Muslim converts. This opposition resulted in polemical treatises which depicted Islam as the religion of the antichrist and of Muslims as libidinous and subhuman.[80] In the medieval period, a few Arab philosophers like the poet Al-Ma'arri adopted a critical approach to Islam, and the Jewish philosopher Maimonides contrasted Islamic views of morality to Jewish views that he himself elaborated.[81]

Starting in the ۹th century, Muslim conquests in Christian Europe began to be reversed. The Reconquista was launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia, and Muslim Italian possessions were lost to the Normans. From the ۱۱th century onwards a series of wars known as the Crusades brought the Muslim world into conflict with Christendom. Successful at first in their capturing of the Holy land which resulted in the establishment of the Crusader states, Crusader gains in the Holy Land were reversed by later Muslim generals such as Saladin, who recaptured Jerusalem during the Second Crusade.[82] The Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbasid dynasty at the Battle of Baghdad in ۱۲۵۸, which saw the Muslims overrun by the superior Mongol army. Meanwhile in Egypt, the slave-soldier Mamluks took control in an uprising in ۱۲۵۰.[83]

د عثمانيه سلطنت او په هند کې اسلامي رياست (۱۲۵۸–۱۹۱۸)

The Seljuk Turks fell apart rapidly in the second half of the ۱۳th century. In the ۱۳th and ۱۴th centuries the Ottoman empire (named after Osman I) was established with a string of conquests that included the Balkans, parts of Greece, and western Anatolia. In ۱۴۵۳ under Mehmed II the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. The Byzantine fortress succumbed shortly thereafter, having been battered by superior Ottoman cannonry.[84]

Beginning in the ۱۳th century, Sufism underwent a transformation, largely as a result of the efforts of al-Ghazzali to legitimize and reorganize the movement. He developed the model of the Sufi order—a community of spiritual teachers and students.[85] Also of importance to Sufism was the creation of the Masnavi, a collection of mystical poetry by the ۱۳th century Persian poet Rumi. The Masnavi had a profound influence on the development of Sufi religious thought; to many Sufis it is second in importance only to the Qur'an.[86]

The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum located in Agra, India, that was built under Mughal[87]

In the early ۱۶th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia and established Shi'a Islam as an official religion there, and despite periodic setbacks, the Safavids remained powerful for two centuries. Meanwhile, Mamluk Egypt fell to the Ottomans in ۱۵۱۷, who then launched a European campaign which reached as far as the gates of Vienna in ۱۵۲۹.[88] Many Islamic dynasties ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent starting from the twelfth century. The prominent ones include the Delhi Sultanate (۱۲۰۶–۱۵۲۶) and the Mughal empire (۱۵۲۶–۱۸۵۷). These empires helped in the spread of Islam in South Asia. but by the mid-۱۸th century the British empire had ended the Mughal dynasty.[89] In the ۱۸th century the Wahhabi movement took hold in Saudi Arabia. Founded by the preacher Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Wahhabism is a fundamentalist ideology that condemns practices like Sufism and the veneration of saints as un-Islamic.[90]

By the ۱۷th and ۱۸th centuries, despite attempts at modernization, the Ottoman empire had begun to feel threatened by European economic and military advantages. In the ۱۹th century, the rise of nationalism resulted in Greece declaring and winning independence in ۱۸۲۹, with several Balkan states following suit after the Ottomans suffered defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of ۱۸۷۷–۱۸۷۸. The Ottoman era came to a close at the end of World War I.[91]

نوی پېر (۱۹۱۸–اوسمهال)

After World War I losses, the remnants of the empire were parceled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. Since then most Muslim societies have become independent nations, and new issues such as oil wealth and relations with the State of Israel have assumed prominence.[92]

The ۲۰th century saw the creation of many new Islamic "revivalist" movements. Groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan advocate a totalistic and theocratic alternative to secular political ideologies. Sometimes called Islamist, they see Western cultural values as a threat, and promote Islam as a comprehensive solution to every public and private question of importance. In countries like Iran and Afghanistan (under the Taliban), revolutionary movements replaced secular regimes with Islamist states, while transnational groups like Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda engage in terrorism to further their goals. In contrast, Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".[93]

In modern times Islam has come under criticism from idealogues such as Robert Spencer[94] and Ibn Warraq,[95] who criticize Islamic law and question the morality of the Qur'an; for example, they say that its contents justify mistreatment of women and encourage antisemitic remarks by Muslim theologians;[96] such claims are disputed by Muslim scholars.[97] Montgomery Watt, Norman Daniel, and Edward Said dismiss many of the criticisms as the product of old myths and medieval European polemics.[98] The rise of Islamophobia, according to Carl Ernst, had contributed to the negative views about Islam and Muslims in the West.[99]

اسلامي ټولنه

د هېوادونو له مخې د مسلمانانو د شمېر سلنه

وګړپوهنه

کينډۍ:دا هم وګورۍ

Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population in ۲۰۰۷ range from ۱٫۱ billion to ۱٫۸ billion. Approximately ۸۵٪ are Sunni and ۱۵٪ are Shi'a, with a small minority belonging to other sects. Some ۳۰–۴۰ countries are Muslim-majority, and Arabs account for around ۲۰٪ of all Muslims worldwide. South Asia and Southeast Asia contain the most populous Muslim countries, with Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh having more than ۱۰۰ million adherents each.[100] According to U.S. government figures, in ۲۰۰۶ there were ۲۰ million Muslims in China.[101] In the Middle East, the non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities.[100] Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries.[102]

جومات

جومات د مسلمانانو لپاره د عبادت ځای دی، چې په عربي کې ورته مسجد وایي که څه هم په جوماتو کې اصلي موخه د لمونځونو ادا کول دی، خو مسلمانو ته جومات د یو بل د لیدلو او زده کړو لپاره هم ډیر مهم دی. اوسني پرمختللي جوماتونه تر ډیرې کچې پورې د ۷ مې پیړۍ د جوماتو په شان پراخ شوي او د ډیرو بیلابیلو څیزونو او معمامري عناصرو درلودونکي دی لکه منار.[103]

کورنيز ژوند

کينډۍ:دا-هم-وګورۍ The basic unit of Islamic society is the family, and Islam defines the obligations and legal rights of family members. The father is seen as financially responsible for his family, and is obliged to cater for their well-being. The division of inheritance is specified in the Qur'an, which states that most of it is to pass to the immediate family, while a portion is set aside for the payment of debts and the making of bequests. The woman's share of inheritance is generally half of that of a man with the same rights of succession.[104] Marriage in Islam is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. The groom is required to pay a dowry (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.[105]

A man may marry up to four wives if he believes he can treat them equally, while a woman may marry one man only. In most Muslim countries, the process of divorce in Islam is known as talaq, which the husband initiates by pronouncing the word "divorce".[106] Scholars disagree whether Islamic holy texts justify traditional Islamic practices such as veiling and seclusion (purdah). Starting in the ۲۰th century, Muslim social reformers argued against these and other practices such as polygamy, with varying success. At the same time, many Muslim women have attempted to reconcile tradition with modernity by combining an active life with outward modesty. Islamist groups and regimes like the Taliban mostly seek to continue traditional law as applied to women.[107]

اسلامي کليز

اسلامي کاليز د مکې نه مدينې ته د هجرت د وخت نه پيلېږي او هماغه کال د هجرت لومړی کال بلل کېږي چې د زېږيز کال ۶۲۲ سره سمون خوري. د اسلامي کاليز ته سپوږميزه کاليزه هم وايي او دا ځکه چې د دې کال مياشتې د سپوږمۍ د حرکت پر بنسټ ټاکل شوي، but differs from other such calendars (e.g. the Celtic calendar) in that it omits intercalary months, being synchronized only with lunations, but not with the solar year, resulting in years of either ۳۵۴ or ۳۵۵ days. This omission was introduced by Muhammad because the right to announce intercalary months had led to political power struggles.کينډۍ:Citation needed Therefore, Islamic dates cannot be converted to the usual CE/AD dates simply by adding ۶۲۲ years. Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar.


The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen to be the Hijra in ۶۲۲CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. The assignment of this year as the year ۱ AH (Anno Hegirae) in the Islamic calendar was reportedly made by Caliph Umar. It is a lunar calendar, with nineteen ordinary years of ۳۵۴ days and eleven leap years of ۳۵۵ days in a thirty-year cycle. Islamic dates cannot be converted to CE/AD dates simply by adding ۶۲۲ years: allowance must also be made for the fact that each Hijri century corresponds to only ۹۷ years in the Christian calendar.[108] The year ۱۴۲۸AH coincides almost completely with ۲۰۰۷CE.

Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the ۱st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) on the ۱۰th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the pilgrimage to Mecca.[109]

اسلام او نور دينونه

هغه مذهبونه چې د اسلام پر بنسټ جوړ شوي

دا لانديني مذهبونو لارويان ځانونه مسلمانان بولي، خو د ډېرو مسلمانانو او مسلمانو چارواکو لخوا دوی مسلمانان نه بلل کېږي:

د لاندې مذهبونو لارويان ځانونه مسلمانان بولي خو د دوی د اسلاميت په منلو کې د ډېرو مسلمانانو اختلافونه شته چې ځينې يې دوی مسلمانان او ځينې يې مسلمانان نه ګڼي:

The following religions are said by some to have evolved or borrowed from Islam, in almost all cases influenced by traditional beliefs in the regions where they emerged, but consider themselves independent religions with distinct laws and institutions:

The claim of the adherents of the Bahá'í Faith that it represents an independent religion was upheld by the Muslim ecclesiastical courts in Egypt during the ۱۹۲۰s. As of January ۱۹۲۶, their final ruling on the matter of the origins of the Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam was that the Bahá'í Faith was neither a sect of Islam, nor a religion based on Islam, but a clearly defined, independently founded faith. This was seen as a considerate act on the part of the ecclesiastical court and in favor of followers of Bahá'í Faith since the majority of Muslims regard a religion based on Islam as a heresy.

Some see Sikhism as a syncretic mix of Islam and Hinduism, although it is often considered a Dharmic faith rather than an Islamic or Abrahamic one. It arose in the context of the interaction between Hindu and Muslim communities in North India.

The following religions might have been said to have evolved from Islam, but are not considered part of Islam, and no longer exist:


The Qur'an contains injunctions to respect other religions. It also asks the followers to fight and subdue unbelievers in times of war and "evict them whence they evicted you" (Al-Qur'an ۲:۱۹۱). Some Muslims have respected Jews and Christians as fellow "peoples of the book" (monotheists following Abrahamic religions), while others have reviled them as having abandoned monotheism and corrupted their scriptures. At different times and places, Islamic communities have been both intolerant and tolerant.

The classical Islamic solution was a limited tolerance — Jews and Christians were to be allowed to privately practice their faith and follow their own family law. They were called Dhimmis, and they had fewer though similar legal rights and obligations than Muslims.

The classic Islamic state was often more tolerant than many other states of the time, which insisted on complete conformity to a state religion. The record of contemporary Muslim-majority states is mixed. Some are generally regarded as tolerant, while others have been accused of intolerance and human rights violations. See the main article, Islam and other religions, for further discussion.

A view of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a holy site in both Islam and Judaism that has been a source of controversy
د الاقصا مسجد ديني جلوس. مسلمانان په دې عقيده دي چې حضرت محمد (صلی الله علیه وسلم) د همدغه ځای نه د معراج په سفر اسمان ته وخاته.

According to Islamic doctrine, Islam was the primordial religion of mankind, professed by Adam.[110] At some point, a religious split occurred, and God began sending prophets to bring his revelations to the people.[111] In this view, Abraham, Moses, Hebrew prophets, and Jesus were all prophets of Islam, but their message and the texts of the Torah and the Gospels were corrupted by Jews and Christians. Similarly, children of non-Muslim families are born Muslims, but are converted to another faith by their parents.[112] The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."[113] Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, defamation of Islam is prohibited, and the testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.[114]

Islamic law divides non-Muslims into several categories, depending on their relation with the Islamic state. Christians and Jews who live under Islamic rule are known as dhimmis. Dhimmis must pay tribute (jizya) to the Islamic state, and as such are considered "protected peoples." Historically, dhimmis enjoyed a measure of communal autonomy under their own religious leaders, but were subject to legal, social and religious restrictions as well as humiliating regulations meant to highlight the inferiority of non-Muslim subjects.[115] The status was extended to Zoroastrians and sometimes to polytheists (such as Hindus), but not to atheists or agnostics.[116] Those who live in non-Muslim lands (dar al-harb) are known as harbis, and upon entering into an alliance with the Muslim state become known as ahl al-ahd. Those who receive a guarantee of safety while residing temporarily in Muslim lands are known as ahl al-amān. Their legal position is similar to that of the dhimmi except that they are not required to pay the jizya. The people of armistice (ahl al-hudna) are those who live outside of Muslim territory and agree to refrain from attacking the Muslims.[117][118] Apostasy is prohibited, and is punishable by death.[119][120]

دا هم وګورئ

کينډۍ:Col-1-of-2

کينډۍ:Col-2-of-2

يادښتونه

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    • "اسلام او عيسويت", د عيسويت پوهنغونډ (۲۰۰۱): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allāh.
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  22. See:
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  37. See:
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  106. Ghamidi (۲۰۰۱): Customs and Behavioral Laws
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  108. Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), pp. ۱۸–۱۹
  109. Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), p. ۱۸
  110. Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), p. ۳۵
  111. See:
    • Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), p. ۳۵;
    • Lewis (۱۹۸۴), p. ۳۹
  112. See:
    • Lewis (۱۹۸۴), pp.۹, ۲۷, ۳۶;
    • Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), p. ۳۷;
  113. Lewis (۲۰۰۱), p.۲۷۳
  114. Friedmann (۲۰۰۳), p. ۵۵
  115. "Aman", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  116. A woman who apostasizes is to be executed according to some jurists, or imprisoned according to others.
  117. "Murtadd", Encyclopedia of Islam

سرچينې

کتابونه او خپرونې
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نورې لوستنې

  • Arberry, A. J. (۱۹۹۶). The Koran Interpreted: A Translation (۱st ed.). Touchstone. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۶۸۴۸۲۵۰۷۶. 
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  • Khan, Muhammad Muhsin; Al-Hilali Khan, Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din (۱۹۹۹). Noble Quran (۱st ed.). Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN ۹۷۸-۹۹۶۰۷۴۰۷۹۹. 
  • Kramer (ed.), Martin (۱۹۹۹). The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Syracuse University. ISBN ۹۷۸-۹۶۵۲۲۴۰۴۰۸. 
  • Kuban, Dogan (۱۹۷۴). Muslim Religious Architecture. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN ۹۰۰۴۰۳۸۱۳۲. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (۱۹۹۳). Islam in History: Ideas, People, and Events in the Middle East. Open Court. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۸۱۲۶۹۲۱۷۴. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (۱۹۹۴). Islam and the West. Oxford University Press. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۱۹۵۰۹۰۶۱۱. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (۱۹۹۶). Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery. Oxford University Press. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۱۹۵۱۰۲۸۳۳. 
  • Mubarkpuri, Saifur-Rahman (۲۰۰۲). The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Prophet. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN ۹۷۸-۱۵۹۱۴۴۰۷۱۰. 
  • Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (۲۰۰۱). History of Islam. Dar-us-Salam Publications. ISBN ۹۷۸-۱۵۹۱۴۴۰۳۴۵. 
  • Nigosian, S. A. (۲۰۰۴). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices (New Edition ed.). Indiana University Press. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۲۵۳۲۱۶۲۷۴. 
  • Rahman, Fazlur (۱۹۷۹). Islam (۲nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN ۰-۲۲۶-۷۰۲۸۱-۲. 
  • Walker, Benjamin (۱۹۹۸). Foundations of Islam: The Making of a World Faith. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰۷۲۰۶۱۰۳۸۳. 

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