سره زر

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Gold,  79Au
Gold-crystals.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈɡld/
GOHLD
Appearancemetallic yellow
Gold په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Ag

Au

Rg
platinumgoldmercury
اټومي شمیره (Z)79
گروپ, پیریودgroup 11, period 6
بلاکd-block
Element category  transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar)کينډۍ:Val[۱][۲]
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP)جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى1337.33 K ​(1064.18 °C, ​1947.52 °F)
يشنا ټکی3243 K ​(2970 °C, ​5378 °F)
Density near r.t.19.30 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p.17.31 g/cm3
Heat of fusion12.55 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization342 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.418 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1646 1814 2021 2281 2620 3078
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states5, 3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −3 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.54
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 890.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1980 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 144 pm
Covalent radius136±6 pm
Van der Waals radius166 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face centered cubic crystal structure for gold
Speed of sound thin rod2030 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion14.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه318 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity22.14 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol)−28.0·10−6 cm3/mol (at 296 K)[۴]
Tensile strength120 MPa
Young's modulus79 GPa
Shear modulus27 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa[۵]
Poisson ratio0.4
Mohs hardness2.5
Vickers hardness188–216 MPa
Brinell hardness188–245 MPa
CAS Number7440-57-5
History
Namingfrom Latin aurum, meaning gold
DiscoveryIn the Middle East (before 6000 BCE)
Main isotopes of gold
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
195Au syn 186.10 d ε 195Pt

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

197Au 100% stable
198Au syn 2.69517 d β 198Hg
199Au syn 3.169 d β 199Hg
| references | in Wikidata

سره زر سره زر (په انګړېزی: Gold) له کمېاوی عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Au سمبول او v۹ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی. يو ارزښتناک توکو څخه دی چې په هر هېواد کې پیدا کېږی په ځانګری توګه په افغانستان کې . د افغانستان هېواد په ګوټ کې سره زر شتون لری خو له بدمرغه چې کارپوهان شتون نه لري

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. "Standard Atomic Weights 2013". Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Lide, D. R., المحرر (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (الطبعة 86th). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0486-5. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. د کتاب پاڼي E110. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 0-8493-0464-4. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  5. Kelly, P.F. (2015). Properties of Materials. CRC Press. د کتاب پاڼې 355. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4822-0624-1. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)

Wiki letter w.svg دا ليکنه نابشپړه ده، تاسې ددې ليکنې په بشپړولو کې د ويکيپېډيا سره مرسته کولای شئ.