روديوم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
Rhodium,  45Rh
Rhodium powder pressed melted.jpg
عمومي خواص
Pronunciation /ˈrdiəm/
ROH-dee-əm
Appearance silvery white metallic
Rhodium په دوراني جدول کې
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Nihonium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Moscovium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Tennessine (unknown chemical properties)
Oganesson (unknown chemical properties)
Co

Rh

Ir
rutheniumrhodiumpalladium
اټومي شمیره (Z) 45
گروپ, پیریود group 9, period 5
بلاک d-block
Element category   transition metal
معياري اټومي وزن (Ar) کينډۍ:Val[۱]
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d8 5s1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 16, 1
فزیکي خواص
حالت (at STP) جامد
دويلې کيدو ټکى 2237 K ​(1964 °C, ​3567 °F)
يشنا ټکی 3968 K ​(3695 °C, ​6683 °F)
Density near r.t. 12.41 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.7 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 26.59 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 493 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.98 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2288 2496 2749 3063 3405 3997
اټومي خواص
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,[۲] −1, −3 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.28
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 719.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1740 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2997 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 142±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for rhodium
Speed of sound thin rod 4700 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 8.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
د تودوخې تېرېدنه 150 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 43.3 nΩ·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic[۳]
Magnetic susceptibility (χmol) +111.0·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[۴]
Young's modulus 380 GPa
Shear modulus 150 GPa
Bulk modulus 275 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26
Mohs hardness 6.0
Vickers hardness 1100–8000 MPa
Brinell hardness 980–1350 MPa
CAS Number 7440-16-6
History
Discovery and first isolation William Hyde Wollaston (1804)
Main isotopes of rhodium
آيسو­ټوپ Abun­dance نیم ژوند (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay3 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2 کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay4

103Rh 100% stable

کينډۍ:Infobox element/isotopes decay2

| references | in Wikidata

روديوم (په انگرېزي: Rhodium) له کیمیاوي عناصرو څخه یو دی چې په تناوبي جدول کې د Rh سمبول او ۴۵ اتمي شمېرې په وسیله ښودل شوی دی.

مشخصات[سمول]

تاریخچه[سمول]

مرکبات[سمول]

د استعمال ځایونه[سمول]

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Meija, J.; Coplen, T. B. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265-91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/pac.2016.88.issue-3/pac-2015-0305/pac-2015-0305.xml. 
  2. . Rhodium: rhodium(I) fluoride compound data. OpenMOPAC.net
  3. Lide, D. R., ed (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf. 
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics]. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 

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