سوسیالیزم

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
و اصلی برخی ته ورشی د پلټنې ځای ته ورټوپ کړی
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سوسیالېزم یا ټولنواکي (Socialism) یوه سیاسي، ټولنیزه او اقتصادي فلسفه ده چې یو لړ اقتصادي او ټولنیز نظامونه پکې شاملېږي او د تولید د وسیلو پر ټولنیز مالکیت یا څښتنولۍ سره پېژندل کېږي. په دې فلسفه کې هغه سیاسي تیورۍ او خوځښتونه شامل دي چې له دا ډول نظامونو سره تړاو لري. ټولنیز مالکیت یا څښتنواله ښایي عامه، ډله‌ییزه، کوپراتیف یا مرستندوی، یا هم د برابرۍ اړوند یا سهامي وي. په داسې حال کې چې هېڅ داسې واحد تعریف نشته چې د سوسیالېزم یا ټولنپالنې ګڼ ډولونه راونغاړي، خو بیا هم ټولنیز مالکیت یې یو ګډ او عام عنصر دی. سوسیالېزمونه د سرچینو په تخصیص کې د بازارونو او پلانونو د رول پر بنسټ، په سازمانونو کې د مدیریت د جوړښت او له لاندې یا له پورته تګلارو سره توپیر لري، چې ځینې سوسیالېستان پکې د ګوند، دولت یا تیکنوکراتې کړنلارې خوښوي. سوسیالېستان په دې اړه سره یوه خوله نه دي چې ایا حکومت، په ځانګړې توګه موجوده حکومت د بدلون لپاره سمه وسیله ده کنه.[۱][۲][۳][۴][۵][۶][۷][۸][۹][۱۰][۱۱][۱۲][۱۳][۱۴][۱۵]

سوسیالیستي سیاست دواړه نړیوال او ملتپال اړخونه لري، چې د سیاسي ګوندونو له لارې تنظیمېږي او د ګوندي سیاست مخالف دي او ځینې وختونه له سوداګریزو اتحادیو سره یوځای وي خو ځینې وختونه بیا له هغوی خپلواک او پر هغو انتقادي دریځ لري؛ او همدا راز په دواړو صنعتي او د پرمختګ په حال کې هېوادونو کې شته دی. سوسیال ډیموکراسۍ له سوسیالیستي غورځنګ څخه سرچینه اخیستې او د ټولنیز عدالت د ودې لپاره د اقتصادي او ټولنیزو مداخلو ملاتړ کوي. په داسې حال کې چې سوسیالېزم د اوږدمهال هدف په توګه مطرح دی، له جګړې وروسته دورې راهیسې د کینیزیا مخلوط اقتصاد په یوه تر ډېره پرمختللي پانګوال بازار اقتصاد او لیبرال ډیموکراتیک اقتصاد کې منل شوی، هغه سیاست چې د دولت مداخله د عاید تر بیا وېش، مقرراتو، او یوه سوکاله دولت پورې پراخوي. اقتصادي ډیموکراسي د مارکیټ سوسیالېزم یو داسې ډول وړاندیز کوي، چې د شرکتونو، اسعارو، پانګونې او طبیعي زېرمو لا ډېر ډیموکراتیک کنټرول پکې مطرح دی.[۱۶][۱۷][۱۸][۱۹][۲۰][۲۱][۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۲۶][۲۷][۲۸][۲۹][۳۰][۳۱][۳۲][۳۳][۳۴]

سوسیالیستي سیاسي غورځنګ د سیاسي فلسفو یوه داسې ټولګه رانغاړي چې سرچینه یې د ۱۸مې پېړۍ له نیمایي څخه تر وروستیو پورې په انقلابي خوځښتونو او د هغو ټولنیزو ستونزو اړوند اندېښنه کې ده، چې له پانګوالۍ یا کپیټلېزم سره تړاو لري. د ۱۹مې پیړۍ په وروستیو کې، د کارل مارکس او د هغه د همکار فریدریش انګلس له اثارو وروسته، سوسیالېزم له پانګوالۍ یا کپیټلېزم سره د مخالفت او د تولید د وسیلو د ټولنیز مالکیت پر یوه بڼه ولاړ له پانګوالۍ-وروسته نظام د ملاتړ په معنا و. په ۱۹۲۰ لسیزه کې، کمونیزم او ټولنیزه ډیموکراسي په نړیوال سوسیالیستي غورځنګ کې دوه غالب سیاسي تمایلات وګرځېدل او سوسیالېزم په خپله د ۲۰مې پیړۍ ترټولو اغېزناک سیکولر غورځنګ شو. سوسیالیست ګوندونه او مفکورې په ټولو لویو وچو کې د قدرت او نفوذ په بېلابېلو کچو یو سیاسي ځواک پاتې شوی، چې د نړۍ په ډېری هېوادونو کې د ملي حکومتونو مشري کوي. په اوسني وخت کې ډېری سوسیالیستانو د نورو ټولنیزو خوځښتونو لکه فیمینیزم، چاپیریالیزم او پرمختګ پالنې لاملونه هم منلي دي. [۳۵][۳۶][۳۷][۳۸][۳۹][۴۰][۴۱][۴۲][۴۳][۴۴][۴۵]

په داسې حال کې چې د نړۍ د لومړي په نامه سوسیالیستي دولت په توګه د شوروي اتحاد راڅرګندېدل له شوروي اقتصادي ماډل سره د سوسیالېزم د پراخې اړیکې لامل شو، ځینې اقتصاد پوهان لکه ریچارډ ډي وولف، او د نوم چومسکي په څېر نور پوهان فکر کوي چې په عمل کې دا ماډل د دولتي پانګوالۍ د یوې بڼې او یا هم د یوه غیرپلان شوي اداري یا کمانډ اقتصاد په توګه کار کوي. ګڼو څېړونکو، سیاسي مبصرینو، او پوهانو د استبدادي سوسیالیستي او ډیموکراټیک سوسیالیستي دولتونو ترمنځ توپیر کړی چې لومړی یې د ختیځ بلاک استازیتوب کوي او وروستی یې د لویدیځ بلاک هغو هیوادونو استازیتوب کوي چې په ډیموکراتیک ډول د سوسیالیستي ګوندونو له لوري اداره شوي، لکه د نورو ترڅنګ برېتانیا، فرانسه، سویډن او په ټوله کې لوېدیځ هېوادونه. [۴۶][۴۷][۴۸][۴۹][۵۰]

د کلمې ريښه[سمول]

د انډریو وینسنټ په اند، "د سوسیالېزم د کلمې ريښه له لاتیني کلمې sociare څخه ده، چې د یوځای کولو یا شریکولو معنا لري. په روم کې او بیا د منځنیو پېړیو په قوانینو کې یې اړونده او ډېره تخنیکي اصطلاح societas وه. دا وروستنۍ کلمه ښایي د ملګرۍ او انډیوالۍ معنا ولري او همدا راز ښایي د ازادو خلکو ترمنځ د یوه توافقي قرارداد د لا ډېرې قانوني یا حقوقي نظریې په معنا وي."[۵۱]

د سوسیالېزم لومړي ځل کارونې ادعا د پییر لیروکس له خوا وشوه، چا چې ادعا وکړه چې هغه په ​​​​لومړي ځل په ۱۸۳۲ کال کې د پاریس په یوه ژورنال لي ګلوب (Le Globe) کې دا اصطلاح کارولې ده. لیروکس د هینري دي سینټ سیمون (Henri de Saint-Simon) پیرو و، کوم چې د یوتوپیان سوسیالېزم (utopian socialism) د بنسټګرانو له جملې بلل کېږي. سوسیالېزم د انفرادیت (individualism) له لېبرالې عقیدې یا دکترین سره په تضاد کې دی، کوم چې د فرد پر اخلاقي ارزښت ټینګار کوي او په ورته وخت کې وایي چې خلک داسې عمل کوي یا یې باید وکړي لکه دوی چې له یو بله جلا وي. اصلي یوتوپیان سوسیالیستانو د انفرادیت دا دکترین یا نظریه د صنعتي انقلاب په جریان کې د ټولنیزو اندېښنو په له منځه وړلو کې د پاتې راتلو له امله وغندله، چې بې‌وزلي، ظلم زیاتی او د شتمنۍ پراخه نابرابري پکې شامله وه. دوی خپلې ټولنې ته پر سیالۍ ولاړې ټولنې پرمټ ټولنیز ژوند ته د زیان رسولو په سترګه کتل. دوی سوسیالېزم د سرچینو د مشترک مالکیت پر بنسټ د لیبرال انفرادیت د بدیل په توګه وړاندې کړ. سینټ سیمون د اقتصادي پلان جوړونې، علمي ادارې او د ټولنې په جوړښت کې د علمي پوهې د پلي کولو وړاندیز وکړ. برعکس، رابرټ اوون (Robert Owen) وړاندیز وکړ چې تولید او مالکیت د کوپراتیفونو له لارې تنظیم کړي. سوسیالېزم په فرانسه کې ماري روچ لوئیس ریبوډ (Marie Roch Louis Reybaud) ته هم منسوب شوی، په داسې حال کې چې په انګلستان کې بیا اوون ته منسوب شوی، چې د کوپراتیف غورځنګ له پلرونو بلل کېږي.[۵۲][۵۳][۵۴][۵۵][۵۶][۵۷]

اقتصاد[سمول]

سوسیالیستي اقتصاد له دې فرضیې سرچینه اخلي چې "فرد په انزوا کې ژوند یا کار نه کوي، بلکې د یو بل سره په همکارۍ کې ژوند کوي. پر دې سربېره، هر هغه څه چې خلک یې تولیدوي په یو ډول ټولنیز محصول دی، او هرڅوک چې د کوم څیز په تولید کې ونډه اخلي، په هماغه څیز کې د برخې لرلو حق هم لري. له دې کبله، په مجموع کې ټولنه باید د خپلو ټولو غړو د ګټو لپاره ملکیت یا شتمني په واک کې ولري یا لږ تر لږه کنټرول پرې ولري."[۵۸][۵۹]

سیاست[سمول]

په داسې حال کې چې په لویو سوسیالیستي سیاسي خوځښتونو کې انارشېزم، کمونیزم، د کارګر غورځنګ، مارکسیزم، ټولنیزه ډیموکراسي، او سنډیکالیزم شامل دي، خو په دغو خوځښتونو کې ممکن د خپلواکو سوسیالیستي تیوریستانو، یوټوپیان سوسیالیستي لیکوالانو، او د سوسیالیزم د علمي ملاتړو استازیتوب ونه شي. ځینې سیاسي ډلې ځانونه سوسیالیستي ډلې بولي په داسې حال کې چې داسې نظریات لري چې له کبله یې تر ډېره د سوسیالېزم مخالفین بلل کېږي. سوسیالیست د سیاسي حق (political right) له خوا د یوه لقب په توګه کارول شوی، چې د هغو اشخاصو پرضد چې ځانونه سوسیالیست نه ګڼي او د هغو پالیسیو پرضد چې د دوی پلویان یې سوسیالیستي نه ګڼي، دا کارېدن شاملېږي. په داسې حال کې چې د سوسیالیزم ګڼې بڼې شته دي او هېڅ یو داسې واحد تعریف نه لري چې ټول سوسیالیزم راونغاړي، خو بیا یې هم د پوهانو له لوري ځینې مشترک عناصر پېژندل شوي دي.[۶۰]

سرچنینې[سمول]

  1. Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. د کتاب پاڼې 2. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-275-96886-1. Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  2. Sinclair, Upton (1 January 1918). Upton Sinclair's: A Monthly Magazine: for Social Justice, by Peaceful Means If Possible. Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.' الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  3. Arnold, N. Scott (1998). The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. Oxford University Press. p. 8. "What else does a socialist economic system involve? Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system."
  4. Horvat, Branko (2000). "Social ownership". In Michie, Jonathan (المحرر). Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences, Volume 1. London and New York: Routledge. د کتاب پاڼي 1515–1516. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 9781135932268. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۵ اکتوبر ۲۰۲۱. Just as private ownership defines capitalism, social ownership defines socialism. The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies, and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society. Two closely related consequences follow. First, every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend…Second, in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace, enterprises are run by those employed, and not by the representatives of private or state capital. Thus, the well-known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end. The society—i.e. every individual equally—owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  5. Rosser, Marina V. and J Barkley Jr. (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. د کتاب پاڼې 53. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-262-18234-8. Socialism is an economic system characterised by state or collective ownership of the means of production, land, and capital. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  6. Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications. د کتاب پاڼې 2456. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4129-5963-6. Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism, which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  7. Zimbalist, Sherman and Brown, Andrew, Howard J. and Stuart (1988). Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach. Harcourt College Pub. د کتاب پاڼې 7. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-15-512403-5. Pure socialism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production are owned and run by the government and/or cooperative, nonprofit groups. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  8. Brus, Wlodzimierz (2015). The Economics and Politics of Socialism. Routledge. د کتاب پاڼې 87. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-415-86647-7. This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system. The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  9. "Socialism". The Free Dictionary. "2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system". Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  10. O'Hara, Phillip (2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. د کتاب پاڼې 71. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-415-24187-8. In order of increasing decentralisation (at least) three forms of socialised ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  11. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 1
  12. Arnold, Scott (1994). The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼي 7–8. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-508827-4. This term is harder to define, since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism 'really is.' It would seem that everyone (socialists and nonsocialists alike) could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends, goals, values, or ideals. It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends; whatever that may mean in positive terms, it certainly presupposes, at a minimum, the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  13. Hastings, Mason and Pyper, Adrian, Alistair and Hugh (21 December 2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 677. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-19-860024-4. Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one...Nevertheless, socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership. By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital; bringing the means of production, distribution, and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy. It is difficult to see how it can survive, in theory or practice, without this central idea. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  14. Nove, Alec. "Socialism". New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008). A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialised or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  15. Docherty, James C.; Lamb, Peter, eds. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (2nd ed.). Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements. 73. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 1–3. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  16. Kolb, Robert (19 October 2007). Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, First Edition. SAGE Publications, Inc. د کتاب پاڼې 1345. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-4129-1652-3. There are many forms of socialism, all of which eliminate private ownership of capital and replace it with collective ownership. These many forms, all focused on advancing distributive justice for long-term social welfare, can be divided into two broad types of socialism: nonmarket and market. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  17. Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism. Stanford University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 20. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8047-7566-3. socialism would function without capitalist economic categories—such as money, prices, interest, profits and rent—and thus would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science. While some socialists recognised the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism, socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilise the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  18. Steele, David Ramsay (1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. د کتاب پاڼي 175–177. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-87548-449-5. Especially before the 1930s, many socialists and anti-socialists implicitly accepted some form of the following for the incompatibility of state-owned industry and factor markets. A market transaction is an exchange of property titles between two independent transactors. Thus internal market exchanges cease when all of industry is brought into the ownership of a single entity, whether the state or some other organization, ... the discussion applies equally to any form of social or community ownership, where the owning entity is conceived as a single organization or administration. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  19. Is Socialism Dead? A Comment on Market Socialism and Basic Income Capitalism, by Arneson, Richard J. 1992. Ethics, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 485–511. April 1992: "Marxian socialism is often identified with the call to organize economic activity on a nonmarket basis."
  20. Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell (1998). Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists. "The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism". pp. 61–63. "More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs. ... Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology ... . It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication, would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality."
  21. The Economics of Feasible Socialism Revisited, by Nove, Alexander. 1991. p. 13: "Under socialism, by definition, it (private property and factor markets) would be eliminated. There would then be something like 'scientific management', 'the science of socially organized production', but it would not be economics."
  22. Kotz, David M. "Socialism and Capitalism: Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems?" (PDF). University of Massachusetts. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۹ فبروري ۲۰۱۱. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة) "This understanding of socialism was held not just by revolutionary Marxist socialists but also by evolutionary socialists, Christian socialists, and even anarchists. At that time, there was also wide agreement about the basic institutions of the future socialist system: public ownership instead of private ownership of the means of production, economic planning instead of market forces, production for use instead of for profit."
  23. Weisskopf, Thomas E. (1992). "Toward a Socialism for the Future, in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past". Review of Radical Political Economics. 24 (3–4): 1–28. doi:10.1177/048661349202400302. "Socialism has historically been committed to the improvement of people's material standards of living. Indeed, in earlier days many socialists saw the promotion of improving material living standards as the primary basis for socialism's claim to superiority over capitalism, for socialism was to overcome the irrationality and inefficiency seen as endemic to a capitalist system of economic organization." (p. 2).
  24. Prychitko, David L. (2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. د کتاب پاڼې 12. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-84064-519-4. Socialism is a system based upon de facto public or social ownership of the means of production, the abolition of a hierarchical division of labor in the enterprise, a consciously organized social division of labor. Under socialism, money, competitive pricing, and profit-loss accounting would be destroyed. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  25. Von Mises, Ludwig (1990). Economic calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth (PDF). Mises Institute. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۱ نومبر ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  26. Hayek, Friedrich (1935). "The Nature and History of the Problem"; "The Present State of the Debate". Collectivist Economic Planning. pp. 1–40, 201–243.
  27. Durlauf, Steven N.; Blume, Lawrence E., ed. (1987). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 2 February 2013. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1570.
  28. Biddle, Jeff; Samuels, Warren; Davis, John (2006). A Companion to the History of Economic Thought, Wiley-Blackwell. p. 319. "What became known as the socialist calculation debate started when von Mises (1935 [1920]) launched a critique of socialism".
  29. Levy, David M.; Peart, Sandra J. (2008). "socialist calculation debate". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan.
  30. Marangos, John (Fall 2004). "Social Dividend versus Basic Income Guarantee in Market Socialism". International Journal of Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. 34 (3): 20–40. کينډۍ:Jstor.
  31. O'Hara, Phillip (2000). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. د کتاب پاڼې 71. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-415-24187-8. Market socialism is the general designation for a number of models of economic systems. On the one hand, the market mechanism is utilized to distribute economic output, to organize production and to allocate factor inputs. On the other hand, the economic surplus accrues to society at large rather than to a class of private (capitalist) owners, through some form of collective, public or social ownership of capital. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  32. Pierson, Christopher (1995). Socialism After Communism: The New Market Socialism. Pennsylvania State Univ Press. د کتاب پاڼې 96. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-271-01478-4. At the heart of the market socialist model is the abolition of the large-scale private ownership of capital and its replacement by some form of 'social ownership'. Even the most conservative accounts of market socialism insist that this abolition of large-scale holdings of private capital is essential. This requirement is fully consistent with the market socialists' general claim that the vices of market capitalism lie not with the institutions of the market but with (the consequences of) the private ownership of capital ... . الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  33. McNally, David (1993). Against the Market: Political Economy, Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique. Verso. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8609-1606-2. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  34. Kinna, Ruth (2012). "Introduction". In Kinna, Rith; Pinta, Saku; Prichard, Alex (المحررون). Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. د کتاب پاڼي 1–16. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-230-28037-3. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  35. Newman, Michael (2005). Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. "In fact, socialism has been both centralist and local; organized from above and built from below; visionary and pragmatic; revolutionary and reformist; anti-state and statist; internationalist and nationalist; harnessed to political parties and shunning them; an outgrowth of trade unionism and independent of it; a feature of rich industrialized countries and poor peasant-based communities".
  36. Ely, Richard T. (1883). French and German Socialism in Modern Times. New York: Harper and Brothers. pp. 204—205. "Social democrats forms the extreme wing of the socialists ... inclined to lay so much stress on equality of enjoyment, regardless of the value of one's labor, that they might, perhaps, more properly be called communists. ... They have two distinguishing characteristics. The vast majority of them are laborers, and, as a rule, they expect the violent overthrow of existing institutions by revolution to precede the introduction of the socialistic state. I would not, by any means, say that they are all revolutionists, but the most of them undoubtedly are. ... The most general demands of the social democrats are the following: The state should exist exclusively for the laborers; land and capital must become collective property, and production be carried on unitedly. Private competition, in the ordinary sense of the term, is to cease."
  37. Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander; Henkes, Christian; Egle, Christoph (2008). Social Democracy in Power: The Capacity to Reform. Routledge Research in Comparative Politics. London: Routledge. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  38. Heywood, Andrew (2012). Political Ideologies: An Introduction (الطبعة 5th). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. د کتاب پاڼې 128. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-230-36725-8. Social democracy is an ideological stance that supports a broad balance between market capitalism, on the one hand, and state intervention, on the other hand. Being based on a compromise between the market and the state, social democracy lacks a systematic underlying theory and is, arguably, inherently vague. It is nevertheless associated with the following views: (1) capitalism is the only reliable means of generating wealth, but it is a morally defective means of distributing wealth because of its tendency towards poverty and inequality; (2) the defects of the capitalist system can be rectified through economic and social intervention, the state being the custodian of the public interest ... . الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  39. Roemer, John E. (1994). A Future for Socialism. "The long term and the short term". Harvard University Press. pp. 25–27. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  40. Berman, Sheri (1998). The Social Democratic Moment. Harvard University Press. p. 57. "Over the long term, however, democratizing Sweden's political system was seen to be important not merely as a means but also as an end in itself. Achieving democracy was crucial not only because it would increase the power of the SAP in the Swedish political system but also because it was the form socialism would take once it arrived. Political, economic, and social equality went hand in hand, according to the SAP, and were all equally important characteristics of the future socialist society." کينډۍ:ISBN.
  41. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  42. Bailey, David J. (2009). The Political Economy of European Social Democracy: A Critical Realist Approach. Routledge. p. 77. "... Giorgio Napolitano launched a medium-term programme, 'which tended to justify the governmental deflationary policies, and asked for the understanding of the workers, since any economic recovery would be linked with the long-term goal of an advance towards democratic socialism'". کينډۍ:ISBN.
  43. Lamb, Peter (2015). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 415. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  44. Badie, Bertrand; Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Morlino, Leonardo, eds. (2011). "Social Democracy". International Encyclopedia of Political Science. 8. SAGE Publications. p. 2423. "Social democracy refers to a political tendency resting on three fundamental features: (1) democracy (e.g., equal rights to vote and form parties), (2) an economy partly regulated by the state (e.g., through Keynesianism), and (3) a welfare state offering social support to those in need (e.g., equal rights to education, health service, employment and pensions). کينډۍ:ISBN.
  45. Smith, J. W. (2005). Economic Democracy: The Political Struggle for the 21st century. Radford: Institute for Economic Democracy Press. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  46. Gasper, Phillip (October 2005). The Communist Manifesto: A Road Map to History's Most Important Political Document. Haymarket Books. د کتاب پاڼې 24. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-931859-25-7. As the nineteenth century progressed, "socialist" came to signify not only concern with the social question, but opposition to capitalism and support for some form of social ownership. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  47. Anthony Giddens. Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. 1998 edition. Cambridge, England, UK: Polity Press, 1994, 1998. p. 71.
  48. "Chapter 1 looks at the foundations of the doctrine by examining the contribution made by various traditions of socialism in the period between the early 19th century and the aftermath of the First World War. The two forms that emerged as dominant by the early 1920s were social democracy and communism." Michael Newman. Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 5.
  49. Kurian, George Thomas Kurian, ed. (2011). The Encyclopedia of Political Science. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press. p. 1554.
  50. Garrett Ward Sheldon. Encyclopedia of Political Thought. Fact on File. Inc. 2001. p. 280.
  51. Andrew Vincent (2010). Modern Political Ideologies. Wiley-Blackwell. کينډۍ:ISBN p. 83.
  52. "socialism (n.)". etymonline. Online Etymology Dictionary. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۰۳ مې ۲۰۲۱. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  53. Leszek Kołakowski (2005). Main Currents of Marxism: The Founders, the Golden Age, the Breakdown. W.W. Norton. د کتاب پاڼې 151. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-393-06054-6. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  54. Marvin Perry, Myrna Chase, Margaret Jacob, James R. Jacob. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society – From 1600, Volume 2. Ninth Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 2009. p. 540.
  55. Gregory, Paul; Stuart, Robert (2013). The Global Economy and its Economic Systems. South-Western College Publishing. د کتاب پاڼې 159. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1-285-05535-0. Socialist writers of the nineteenth century proposed socialist arrangements for sharing as a response to the inequality and poverty of the industrial revolution. English socialist Robert Owen proposed that ownership and production take place in cooperatives, where all members shared equally. French socialist Henri Saint-Simon proposed to the contrary: socialism meant solving economic problems by means of state administration and planning, and taking advantage of new advances in science. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  56. Oxford English Dictionary, etymology of socialism
  57. Russell, Bertrand (1972). A History of Western Philosophy. Touchstone. p. 781
  58. "Socialism" at Encyclopedia Britannica.
  59. Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism. Stanford University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 20. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0-8047-7566-3. According to nineteenth-century socialist views, socialism would function without capitalist economic categories—such as money, prices, interest, profits and rent—and thus would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science. While some socialists recognised the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism, socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilise the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  60. Lamb & Docherty 2006, pp. 1–3