تېلوګو

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا
ورټوپ کړه: گرځښت, پلټل

کينډۍ:Use dmy dates

تېلوگو
Native to هند; ټوله نړۍ کې تیت و پرک
سيمې اندرا پردېش, تېلنگانا, یانم and neighbouring states
نسل تېلوگو وگړي
Native speakers

L2 speakers: ca. 5 million (1997–1999)[۱]
Dravidian
Telugu alphabet (Brahmic)
Telugu Braille
رسمي حالت
رسمي ژبه په

 هند in the following states and union territories:

د ژبې کوډونه
آيسو 639-1 te
آيسو 639-2 tel
آيسو 639-3 tel
Glottolog telu1262  (Telugu)[۲]
oldt1249  (Old Telugu)[۳]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of native Telugu speakers in India (as of 1961)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

تېلوگو (English pronunciation: /ˈtɛlʊɡ/;[۴] తెలుగు تېلوگو, کينډۍ:IPA-te) یوه [[ډراوېډین ژبه|ډراوېډین ژبه ده چې له هندي, انگلیسي اوبنگالي پرته بله ژبه ده چې د هند له یوه څخه په زیاتو ایالتونو کې پرې خبرې کېږي.,کينډۍ:Cn being the primary language in اندرا پردېش او تېلنگا, او د یانام ښار کې چېرې چې دا ژبه رسمي منل شوې ده.[۵][۶] Telugu ranks third by the number of native speakers in India (74 million) (2001 Census),[۷] thirteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide[۸] and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[۹]

پېښلیک[سمول]

د روسي ژبپوه انډرونوف په وینا چې تېلوگو ژبه د پروټو-ډراوېډین ژبو څخه د 1500–1000 BC کلونو ترمنځ رابېله شوې ده.[۱۰][۱۱]

Muslim rule[سمول]

With the exception of Coastal Andhra, a distinct dialect developed in the Telangana State and the Rayalaseema region due to Muslim influence: Sultanate rule under the Tughlaq dynasty had been established earlier in the northern Deccan during the 14th century. In the latter half of the 17th century, Muslim rule extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad by the Asaf Jah dynasty in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian/Arabic influence on the Telugu language, especially among the people of Hyderabad. The effect is also evident in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.[۱۲]

In the princely state of Nizam, Andhra Jana Sangham was started in 1921 with the main intention of promoting Telugu language, literature, its books and historical research led by Suravaram Pratapareddy, Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Komarraju Venkata Lakshmana Rao and others.

Phonology[سمول]

Telugu words generally end in vowels. In Old Telugu, this was absolute; in the modern language m, n, y, w may end a word. Atypically for a Dravidian language, voiced consonants were distinctive even in the oldest recorded form of the language. Sanskrit loans have introduced aspirated and murmured consonants as well.

Telugu does not have contrastive stress, and speakers vary on where they perceive stress. Most judge it to be on the penultimate or final syllable, depending on word and vowel length.[۱۳]

Vowels[سمول]

Telugu features a form of vowel harmony wherein the second vowel in disyllabic noun and adjective roots alters whether the first vowel is tense or lax.[۱۴][need illustrations] Also, if the second vowel is open (i.e. /aː/ or /a/), then the first vowel will be more open and centralized (e.g. [mɛːka] 'goat', as opposed to [mku] 'nail').[سرچينه پکارده] Telugu words also have vowels in inflectional suffixes harmonized with the vowels of the preceding syllable.[۱۵]

Vowels – అచ్చులు acchulu
ఇ i ఈ iː ఉ u ఊ uː
ఎ e ఏ eː ఒ o ఓ oː
æː అ a ఆ aː

/æː/ only occurs in loan words.

Telugu has two diphthongs: ఐ [ai] and ఔ [au].

Consonants[سمول]

The table below illustrates the articulation of the consonants.[۱۶]

Telugu consonants
Bilabial Labiodental Denti-
alveolar
Retroflex "Palatal" Velar
Plosive tenuis /p/pa /t̪/ta /ʈ/ṭa /t͡ʃ/ca /k/ka
voiced /b/ba /d̪/da /ɖ/ḍa /d͡ʒ/ja /ɡ/ga
aspirated* /pʰ/pha /ʈʰ/ṭha /t͡ʃʰ/cha /kʰ/kha
breathy voiced* /bʱ/bha /d̪ʱ/dha /ɖʱ/ḍha /d͡ʒʱ/jha /ɡʱ/gha
Nasal /m/ma /n̪/na /ɳ/ṇa
Fricative* /f/ /s̪/sa /ʂ/ṣa /ɕ/śa /x/ha
Approximant central /ʋ/va /j/ya
lateral /l̪/la /ɭ/ḷa
Flap /r̪/

*The aspirated and breathy-voiced consonants occur mostly in loan words, as do the fricatives apart from native /s̪/.

Grammar[سمول]

آرنۍ ليکنه: Telugu grammar

The Telugu Grammar is called vyākaranam (వ్యాకరణం).

The first treatise on Telugu grammar, the Andhra Sabda Chintamani was written in Sanskrit by Nannayya, considered the first Telugu poet and translator, in the 11th century A.D. This grammar followed the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises like Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. Every Telugu grammatical rule is derived from Pāṇinian concepts.

In the 19th century, Chinnaya Suri wrote a simplified work on Telugu grammar called Bāla Vyākaranam by borrowing concepts and ideas from Nannayya's grammar.

Sentence రాము బడికి వెళ్తాడు.
Words రాము బడికి వెళ్తాడు.
Transliteration rāmu baḍiki veḷtāḍu
Gloss Ramu to school goes.
Parts Subject Object Verb
Translation Ramu goes to school.

Vocabulary[سمول]

Sanskrit influenced Telugu of Andhra and Telangana regions, for about 1500 years, however, there are evidences which suggest older origin of the influence. During 1000–1100 AD, Nannaya's re-writing of the Mahābhārata in Telugu (మహాభారతము) re-established its use, and it dominated over the royal language, Sanskrit. Telugu absorbed tatsamas from Sanskrit.[۱۷]

The vocabulary of Telugu, especially in Telangana state, has a trove of Persian-Arabic borrowings, which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology. This was due to centuries of Muslim rule in these regions, such as the erstwhile kingdoms of Golkonda and Hyderabad. (e.g. కబురు, /kaburu/ for Urdu /xabar/, خبر or జవాబు, /dʒavaːbu/ for Urdu /dʒawɑːb/, جواب)

Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia, because the formal, standardized version of the language is lexically Sanskrit or is heavily influenced by Sanskrit, is taught in schools and used by the government and Hindu religious institutions. However, everyday Telugu varies depending upon region and social status.

لیکنې سېسټم[سمول]

The name Telugu written in the Telugu script
آرنۍ ليکنه: Telugu script

تېلوگو ژبه له کیڼ څخه ښي اړخ ته لیکل کېږي.

د شمېرو سېسټم[سمول]

تېلوگو ژبه خپله شمېرنې حساب لري چې په لاندې توگه ښودل کېږي. له دې سره سره دا شمېرې په عمومي توگه نه کارول کېږي.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
sunna (Telugu form of Sanskrit word śūnyam) okati rendu moodu naalugu aidu aaru yedu enimidi tommidi

ابیڅي[سمول]

د تېلوگو ابیڅي له ۶۰ سېمبولونو-۱۶ غږیزو، ۳ غږیز تعدیل کوونکی او ۴۱ بې غږه توري لري. سانسکرېټي او تېلوگو ابیڅي ډېر سره ورته دي.[۱۸] Some are introduced to express fine shades of difference in sounds.[۱۸]

Consonants – hallulu (హల్లులు)
Telugu consonants.gif

Telugu Gunintalu:
క కా కి కీ కు కూ కృ కౄ కె కే కై కొ కో కౌ క్ కం కః
ఖ ఖా ఖి ఖీ ఖు ఖూ ఖృ ఖౄ ఖె ఖే ఖై ఖొ ఖో ఖౌ ఖ్ ఖం ఖః

دا هم وگورئ[سمول]

سرچینې[سمول]

  1. کينډۍ:E14
  2. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert et al., eds (2013). "Telugu". [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "�". Glottolog]. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/telu1262. 
  3. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert et al., eds (2013). "Old Telugu". [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "�". Glottolog]. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/oldt1249. 
  4. Laurie Bauer, 2007, د ژبپوهنې زده کوونکو لارښود کتاب, اېډېنبورگ
  5. . Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages. Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India
  6. (په 1 October 2008 باندې). Telugu gets classical status. Times of India
  7. . Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000. Census of India, 2001.
  8. . Statistical Summaries/ Summary by language size.
  9. . PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled Languages).
  10. "Indian Encyclopaedia – Volume 1", p. 2067, by Subodh Kapoor, Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002
  11. . Proto-Dravidian Info. lists.hcs.harvard.edu.
  12. د اخځ ستونزه: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named APOnline
  13. Lisker and Krishnamurti (1991), "Lexical stress in a 'stressless' language: judgments by Telugu- and English-speaking linguists." Proceedings of the XII International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Université de Provence), 2:90–93.
  14. کينډۍ:Harvcoltxt
  15. A Grammar of the Telugu Language, p. 295, Charles Philip Brown, [۱]
  16. Krishnamurti (1998), "Telugu". In Steever (ed.), The Dravidian Languages. Routledge. pp. 202–240, 260
  17. Ramadasu, G (1980). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "�". Telugu bhasha charitra]. Telugu academyکينډۍ:Inconsistent citations 
  18. ۱۸٫۰ ۱۸٫۱ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "�". A History of Telugu Literature]. Asian Educational Services. p. 18. ISBN 81-206-0313-3. 

د کتابونو لړ[سمول]

  • Albert Henry Arden, A Progressive Grammar of the Telugu Language (1873).
  • Charles Philip Brown, English–Telugu dictionary (1852; revised ed. 1903; online edition)
  • Charles Philip Brown, A Grammar of the Telugu Language (1857)
  • P. Percival, Telugu–English dictionary: with the Telugu words printed in the Roman as well as in the Telugu Character (1862, google books edition)
  • Gwynn, J. P. L. (John Peter Lucius). A Telugu–English Dictionary Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press (1991; online edition).
  • Uwe Gustafsson, An Adiwasi Oriya–Telugu–English dictionary, Central Institute of Indian Languages Dictionary Series, 6. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Language (1989).
  • Vēlcēru Nārāyaṇarāvu, David Dean Shulman, Velcheru Narayana Rao, Classical Telugu Poetry: An Anthology (2002).
  • Callā Rādhākr̥ṣṇaśarma, Landmarks in Telugu Literature: A Short Survey of Telugu Literature (1975).
  • Wilkinson, Robert W. (1974). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "�". "Tense/lax vowel harmony in Telugu: The influence of derived contrast on rule application"]. Linguistic Inquiry 5 (2): 251–270کينډۍ:Inconsistent citations 

بهرنی تړن[سمول]

کينډۍ:Sister project links

تړلې لیکنې[سمول]

سرچینې[سمول]

کينډۍ:Dravidian languages کينډۍ:Languages of India کينډۍ:Telangana کينډۍ:Andhra Pradesh