که څه هم چې د "فلسفې" آرپوهه د دغې پوهنې ساده پېژندنه کوي، خو هماغومره چې فلسفه پخپله پېچلې ده او په ځان کې ګڼ شمېر فلسفي آندونه او فکرونه رانغاړي، نو موږ وييلای شو چې په هماغه شمېر تعريفونه د فلسفې لپاره شته It is at once an activity and an object of contemplation. Individual philosophers often define philosophy as such according to their particular philosophical views. As a result, no definition of philosophy currently enjoys universal agreement. In fact, this issue has prompted the creation of a new sub-discipline: metaphilosophy (or the philosophy of philosophy).
The etymology of the word "philosophy" is Greek. The word comes from the terms philo- (to love or to befriend) and -sophia (wisdom). In contemporary usage, the term is more narrow. It refers to a particular intellectual discipline with a rich historical tradition. In the 20th century, philosophy was further specialized into two distinct styles. Analytic philosophy, which dominates the anglo-american academy, is stereotypically marked by rigor and attention to logic. Continental philosophy, which dominates the European continent, is stereotypically more literary and concerned with ethical and political issues.
Aristotle organized the philosophy into five basic subjects: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics and aesthetics. This organization is still largely in use in Western philosophy today.
|فلسفه ponders the most fundamental questions humankind has been able to ask. These are increasingly numerous and over time they have been arranged into the overlapping branches of the philosophy tree:
- ښکلاپوهنه: What is art? What is beauty? Is there a standard of taste? Is art meaningful? If so, what does it mean? What is good art? Is art for the purpose of an end, or is "art for art's sake?" What connects us to art? How does art affect us? Is some art unethical? Can art corrupt or elevate societies?
- پوهنپوهنه: د پوهې جوهر او حد څه دی؟ د انسان موجوديت، پوهېدنې يا اوسېدنې لپاره څه شی ډېر بنسټيز دي؟ دا څنگه راپېښېږي چې څه چې موږ پرې پوهېږو څنگه پرې پوهېږو؟ د علم حد او بريدونه څه دي؟ موږ څنگه پوهېږو چې نور ذهنونه هم شته؟ موږ د باندنۍ نړۍ په اړه څنگه پوهېږو؟ موږ خپل ځوابونه څنگه په ثبوت رسولی شو؟ يو سم بيان څه دی؟
- اخلاق: Is there a difference between ethically right and wrong actions (or values, or institutions)? If so, what is that difference? Which actions are right, and which wrong? Do divine commands make right acts right, or is their rightness based on something else? Are there standards of rightness that are absolute, or are all such standards relative to particular cultures? How should I live? What is happiness?
- منطق: څه دی چې يو ښه دليل بلل کېږي؟ پېچلو دلايلو اړونده زه څنگه انتقادي فکر کولی شم؟ ښه فکر کول څنگه جوړېږي يا څنگه رامېنځ ته کېږي؟ کله زه وييلی شم چې يو څه معقوله نه دي؟ د منطق سرچينه څه ده؟
- میټا فزیک: What sorts of things exist? What is the nature of those things? Do some things exist independently of our perception? What is the nature of space and time? What is the relationship of the mind to the body? What is it to be a person? What is it to be conscious? Do gods exist?
- سیاسي فلسفه: Are political institutions and their exercise of power justified? What is justice? Is there a 'proper' role and scope of government? Is democracy the best form of governance? Is governance ethically justifiable? Should a state be allowed? Should a state be able to promote the norms and values of a certain moral or religious doctrine? Are states allowed to go to war? Do states have duties against inhabitants of other states?