ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه

د ويکيپېډيا، وړیا پوهنغونډ له خوا

ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه چې د آزادي پاله سرمایه دارۍ یا ښي وزرې آزادي پالنې په نوم هم یادېږي، یوه سیاسي فلسفه ده او د آزادي پالنې یوه بڼه ده چې د سرمایه دارۍ د مالکیت حقونو څخه ملاتړ کوي او په مارکېټ کې د طبیعي سرچینو له خپرېدو او خصوصي مالکیت څخه ملاتړ کوي. د ښي اړخې آزادي پالنې اصطلاح، له کین اړخه آزادي پالنې څخه د ملکیت او شتمنۍ په هکله د شته لیدلورو د تفکیک لپاره کارول کېږي، د آزادي پالنې هغه بڼه ده چې د ځان مالکیت او د طبیعي سرچینو په اړه د مساوات غوښتنې لیدلوري سره یوځای کوي. د سوسیالیسټي آزادي پالنې برعکس، ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه د آزاد بازار له سرمایه دارۍ یا کاپیټالیزم څخه ملاتړ کوي. د آزادي پالنې د ډېرو بڼو په څېر، د مدني آزادیو، په ځانګړې توګه طبیعي قانون، منفي حقونو او د هوسا دولت له لوی بدلون څخه ملاتړ کوي.[۱][۲][۳][۴][۵][۶][۷][۸][۹][۱۰][۱۱][۱۲]

د ښي اړخه آزادي پاله سیاسي فکر ځانګړنه، آزادۍ ته قاطع لومړیتوب دی، چې په کې د فردي ازادۍ ساحه اعظمي حد او د عمومي اقتدار ساحه ټیټ حد ته رسوي. ښي اړخه آزادي پالان معمولاً دولت د آزادۍ اصلي ګواښ ګڼي. دا د دولت ضد نظریه د آنارشیسټي عقیدې سره توپیر لري، ځکه چې د انعطاف نا‌پذیره فردپلوي پر بنسټ ولاړه ده چې د انسانانو ټولنیز توب او همکارۍ باندې لږ یا هیڅ ټینګار نه کوي. د ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې فلسفه هم د فردي حقونو او لسېز فایر یا آزاد بازار اقتصاد کې رېښې لري. د ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې د فردي حقونو نظریه عموماً د کورنیز اصل او د سرمایه دارۍ د کار نظریه څاري، په شخصي مالکیت او په دې چې، خلک د هغو تولیدي وسایلو په تړاو بشپړ حق لري چې د دوی کار هغه تولیدوي، ټینګار کوي. له اقتصادي پلوه، ښي اړخه آزادي پالان د سرمایه دارۍ او آزادو بازارونو ترمنځ هیڅ کوم توپیر نه ویني او د بازار د لړۍ دیکتې کولو لپاره د هرډول هڅې مخالف دي او د بازار پر میکانیزمونو او ځان تنظیمولو پر طبیعت ټینګار کوي او په همدې حال کې د دولت لاسوهنه او د شتمنۍ د بیا وېشلو هڅې تل غیر ضروري او د تولید ضد ګڼي. که څه هم ټول ښي اړخه آزادي پالان د دولت د مداخلې مخالف دي، د آنارکو – کاپیټالیسټانو یوه ډله، چې دولت یو غیرضروري شیطان ګڼي او غواړي چې د مالکیت حقوق له حقوقي قانون، په بازار کې رامنځته شوې شکنجې، قرارداد او مالکیت قانون څخه پرته وساتل شي، او مینارشیسټان، یو کوچني دولت ته د اړتیا د شتون له نظریې څخه ملاتړ کوي، چې اکثره د شپې د ساتونکي دولت په توګه یادېږي، ترڅو خپلو وګړو ته محکمې، اردو او پولیس برابر کړي.[۱۳][۱۴][۱۵]

په داسې حال کې چې د کلاسیک لېبرال فکر تر اغېزې لاندې دي، ځینې بیا ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې ته د دې فکر د پایلې یا یوې بڼې په توګه ګوري، د پام وړ توپیرونه شتون لري. اډوین وان دې هار استدلال کوي چې :«په مغشوش ډول، په متحده ایالتونو کې د آزادي پالنې اصطلاح، کله د کلاسیکو لېبرالانو لپاره یا د هغوی له لوري هم کارول کېږي، خو دا په غلطه توګه د هغوی ترمنځ شته توپیرونه پټوي». کلاسیک لېبرالیزم، آزادي ته پر نظم باندې د لومړیتوب ورکولو څخه انکار کوي، نو ځکه له دولت سره دښمني، چې د آزادي پالنې تعیینونکې ځانګړنه ده، نه په ډاګه کوي. په دې توګه، ښي اړخه آزادي پالان باور لري چې کلاسیک لېبرالان د دولت د ډېرې زیاتې لاسوهنې ‌پلویان دي او استدلال کوي چې، هغوی د فردي مالکیت حقونو ته کافي درناوی نه لري او د آزاد بازاز پر کړنو او د هغه په ناڅاپي نظم، چې د یو لا لوی دولت د ملاتړ لامل کېږي، باندې کافي باور نه لري. ښي اړخه آزادي پالان هم له کلاسیکو لېبرالانو سره د مرکزي بانکونو او پولي سیاستونو څخه د ډېر زیات ملاتړ پر سر مخالفت لري.[۱۶][۱۷][۱۸]

د آزادي پالانو د هر ډول په شان، ښي اړخه آزادي پالان هم ځان ته یوازې د آزادي پالانو نوم ورکوي. په متحده ایالتونو کې د آزادي پالنې ترټولو عامې بڼې په توګه، ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه په هغه ځای کې د شلمې پېړۍ له وروستیو راهیسې د آزادي پالنې ترټولو عامې مرجع په توګه بدله شوې، په داسې حال کې چې له تاریخي اړخه او نورو ځایونو کې اوس هم په دوامداره توګه د دولت ضد سوسیالیزم بڼو، لکه: آنارشیزم او په ټولیز ډول آزادي پاله کمونیزم/آزادي پاله مارکسیزم او آزادي پاله سوسیالیزم ته اشاره کوي. د موري روتبارډ په وخت کې، چا چې په ۱۹۶۰مه لسیزه کې د آزادي پالنې اصطلاح په متحده ایالتونو کې رواج کړه، د آنارکو-کاپیټالیزم خوځښتونو هم ځان ته د آزادي پالانو په ویلو پیل وکړ چې د ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې اصطلاح د رامنځته کېدو لامل شول، ترڅو د هغوی ترمنځ توپیر وشي. په خپله روتبارډ د دې اصطلاح په ګډ انتخاب اعتراف کړی او په «له دښمن څخه [...] نیول» باندې یې ویاړ کاوه. له ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې څخه انتقاد د اخلاقي، اقتصادي، چاپیریال، عملي او فلسفي اندېښنو څخه جوړ دی، له دې جملې څخه هغه لیدلوری چې د آزادۍ په اړه هیڅ ښکاره نظریه نه لري. دا استدلال شوی چې د لیسز فایره یا آزاد بازار سرمایه داري اړینه، ترټولو ښه او ترټولو اغېزمنه پایله نه رامنځته کوي. همدارنګه د فردپلوي فلسفه او د بې نظمي پالیسي ګانې هم له طبیعي سرچینو څخه د ناوړې ګټې اخیستنې مخه نه شي نیولی.[۱۹][۲۰][۲۱][۲۲][۲۳][۲۴][۲۵][۲۶][۲۷][۲۸][۲۹][۳۰][۳۱][۳۲][۳۳][۳۴][۳۵][۳۶][۳۷][۳۸][۳۹][۴۰][۴۱]

پېژند[سمول]

هغه کسان چې د کین اړخه آزادي پاله یا ښي اړخه آزادي پاله په توګه یادېږي، عموماً تمایل لري چې خپلو ځانو ته یوازې آزادي پالان ووایي او خپله فلسفه د آزادۍ پالنې په نوم یاده کړي. دې موضوع ته په کتو سره، ځینې لیکوالان او د سیاسي علومو پوهان، د آزادي پالنې بڼې په دوو ډلو، یعنې کین اړخه آزادي پالنه او ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه، طبقه بندي کوي، ترڅو د مالکیت او شتمنۍ طبیعت په هکله د آزادي پالنې د نظریو ترمنځ بېلتون وشي.[۴۲][۴۳][۴۴][۴۵][۴۶][۴۷][۴۸]

د آزادي پالنې اصطلاح، د لومړي ځل لپاره د روښانتیا وروستیو فکرکوونکو له خوا وکارول شوه او هغو کسانو ته یې اشاره کوله چې په آزاد واک یې باور درلود، د ضرورت پر خلاف، هغه فلسفه چې اوس نه کارول کېږي او د جبري فلسفې د یوې بڼې ښکارندویي یې کوله. د آزادي پالنې کلیمه د لومړي ځل لپاره په ۱۷۸۹ز کال  کې د برېټانیوي تاریخ لیکونکي ویلیام بېلشام له خوا د آزاد واک په ضد بحث کې د لیکونکي د جبري فلسفې نظر له اړخه وکارول شوه. دا بحث د فلسفي – میتافزیکې معنا له اړخه د آزادي پالنې او جبري فلسفې ترمنځ د نولسمې پېړۍ تر لومړیو، په ځانګړې توګه د پروتستانت الهیاتو برخه کې دوام وموند. د مریام – وبسټر (Merriam-Webster) قاموس په انګلیسي ژبه کې، د آزادي پالنې کلیمې څخه دا لرغونې استفاده داسې معنا کوي چې«د آزادې ارادې د باور پلوی»، او یو پراخ تعریف هم ورکوي، همدارنګه وایي چې: هغه «یو داسې کس دی چې د فردي آزادي په اصولو باندې په عمل او فکر کې بشپړ باور لري».[۴۹][۵۰][۵۱][۵۲]

څو لسیزې وروسته، آزادي پالنه هغه اصطلاح وه چې د فرانسوي آزادي پاله کمونیسټ ژوزف دژاک له لوري د کین اړخه سیاست د یوې بڼې په معنا، چې د نولسمې پېړۍ له منځه تر پایه پورې په مکرر ډول آنارشیزم او آزادي پاله سوسیالیزم ته د اشارې لپاره کارول کېده. د ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې نظریو له عصري پراختیا سره، لکه د آنارکو-کاپیټالیزم او مینارشیزم چې د آزادي پالنې اصطلاح یې د شلمې پېړۍ په منځ کې غوره کړه، ترڅو د آزادې سرمایه دارۍ او د خصوصي مالکیت حقونو، لکه: د ځمکې، زیربناوو او طبیعي سرچینو څخه د ملاتړ پرځای ترې ملاتړ وکړي. د کین اړخه آزادي پالنې او ښي اړخه آزادي پالنې اصطلاح ګانې ډېری وخت د دې دوه وو ترمنځ د تفکیک لپاره کارول کېږي. سوسیالیسټي آزادي پالنه په کین اړخه پراخه آزادي پالنه کې ځای پرځای شوې ده، په داسې حال کې چې ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه په عمده توګه آزاده سرمایه دارۍ ته، لکه د موری روتبارډ آنارشیکې سرمایه دارۍ او د رابرټ نوزیک مینارشیزم ته اشاره لري.[۵۳][۵۴][۵۵][۵۶][۵۷][۵۸][۵۹][۶۰][۶۱][۶۲][۶۳][۶۴][۶۵][۶۶][۶۷]

ښي اړخه آزادي پالن،ه د فردي آزادۍ او دولت سره د مخالفت، آزادو بازارونو او خصوصي مالکیت څخه د قوي ملاتړ د ترکیب په توګه بیان شوې ده. د مالکیت حقونه هغه موضوع ده چې آزادي پاله فلسفې یې سره جلا کړې دي. د جنیفر کارلسون په وینا: ښي اړخه آزادي پالنه په متحده ایالتونو کې د آزادي پالنې غالبه بڼه ده. ښي اړخه آزادي پالان «د خصوصي مالکیت پیاوړي حقوق د آزادۍ بنسټ بولي او له همدې کبله یې – په آمریکا کې د آزادي پالنې په هکله د برایان ډوهرټي د لیکنې څخه دا سرلیک نقل کړی (رادیکالان د سرمایه دارۍ لپاره)».

سرچينې[سمول]

  1. Rothbard, Murray (1 March 1971). "The Left and Right Within Libertarianism". WIN: Peace and Freedom Through Nonviolent Action. 7 (4): 6–10. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  2. Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism', and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  3. Marshall, Peter (2008). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Harper Perennial. p. 565. "The problem with the term 'libertarian' is that it is now also used by the Right. [...] In its moderate form, right libertarianism embraces laissez-faire liberals like Robert Nozick who call for a minimal State, and in its extreme form, anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard and David Friedman who entirely repudiate the role of the State and look to the market as a means of ensuring social order".
  4. Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1006. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  5. Newman 2010, p. 53 "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism). There is a complex debate within this tradition between those like Robert Nozick, who advocate a 'minimal state', and those like Rothbard who want to do away with the state altogether and allow all transactions to be governed by the market alone. From an anarchist perspective, however, both positions—the minimal state (minarchist) and the no-state ('anarchist') positions—neglect the problem of economic domination; in other words, they neglect the hierarchies, oppressions, and forms of exploitation that would inevitably arise in laissez-faire 'free' market. [...] Anarchism, therefore, has no truck with this right-wing libertarianism, not only because it neglects economic inequality and domination, but also because in practice (and theory) it is highly inconsistent and contradictory. The individual freedom invoked by right-wing libertarians is only narrow economic freedom within the constraints of a capitalist market, which, as anarchists show, is no freedom at all.
  6. Reiman, Jeffrey H. (2005). [اصطلاحي تېروتنه: د ناپېژندلې ليکنښې لوښه "۱". "The Fallacy of Libertarian Capitalism"]. Ethics 10 (1): 85–95. doi:10.1086/292300. 
  7. Miller, Fred (15 August 2008). "Natural Law". The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism.  
  8. Sterba, James P. (October 1994). "From Liberty to Welfare". Ethics. Cambridge: Blackwell. 105 (1): 237–241.
  9. Vallentyne 2007، ص. 6. "The best-known versions of libertarianism are right-libertarian theories, which hold that agents have a very strong moral power to acquire full private property rights in external things. Left-libertarians, by contrast, holds that natural resources (e.g., space, land, minerals, air, and water) belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner and thus cannot be appropriated without the consent of, or significant payment to, the members of society."
  10. Baradat 2015، ص. 31.
  11. Kymlicka 2005، ص. 516: "Right-wing libertarians argue that the right of self-ownership entails the right to appropriate unequal parts of the external world, such as unequal amounts of land."
  12. Wündisch 2014.
  13. Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism', and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  14. Newman 2010، ص. 43: "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism). There is a complex debate within this tradition between those like Robert Nozick, who advocate a 'minimal state', and those like Rothbard who want to do away with the state altogether and allow all transactions to be governed by the market alone. From an anarchist perspective, however, both positions—the minimal state (minarchist) and the no-state ('anarchist') positions—neglect the problem of economic domination; in other words, they neglect the hierarchies, oppressions, and forms of exploitation that would inevitably arise in a laissez-faire 'free' market. [...] Anarchism, therefore, has no truck with this right-wing libertarianism, not only because it neglects economic inequality and domination, but also because in practice (and theory) it is highly inconsistent and contradictory. The individual freedom invoked by right-wing libertarians is only narrow economic freedom within the constraints of a capitalist market, which, as anarchists show, is no freedom at all."
  15. Heywood 2004، ص. 337.
  16. Van de Haar 2015، ص. 43.
  17. Van de Haar 2015، ص. 42.
  18. Van de Haar 2015، ص. 71.
  19. Rothbard, Murray (2009) [2007]. The Betrayal of the American Right (PDF). Mises Institute. د کتاب پاڼې 83. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1610165013. One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  20. Bookchin, Murray (January 1986). "The Greening of Politics: Toward a New Kind of Political Practice". Green Perspectives: Newsletter of the Green Program Project (1). "We have permitted cynical political reactionaries and the spokesmen of large corporations to pre-empt these basic libertarian American ideals. We have permitted them not only to become the specious voice of these ideals such that individualism has been used to justify egotism; the pursuit of happiness to justify greed, and even our emphasis on local and regional autonomy has been used to justify parochialism, insularism, and exclusivity—often against ethnic minorities and so-called deviant individuals. We have even permitted these reactionaries to stake out a claim to the word libertarian, a word, in fact, that was literally devised in the 1890s in France by Elisée Reclus as a substitute for the word anarchist, which the government had rendered an illegal expression for identifying one's views. The propertarians, in effect—acolytes of Ayn Rand, the earth mother of greed, egotism, and the virtues of property—have appropriated expressions and traditions that should have been expressed by radicals but were willfully neglected because of the lure of European and Asian traditions of socialism, socialisms that are now entering into decline in the very countries in which they originated".
  21. Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). London: Freedom Press. د کتاب پاڼې 162. OCLC 37529250. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0900384899. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  22. Fernandez, Frank (2001). Cuban Anarchism. The History of a Movement[مړه لينکونه]. Sharp Press. p. 9. "Thus, in the United States, the once exceedingly useful term "libertarian" has been hijacked by egotists who are in fact enemies of liberty in the full sense of the word."
  23. "The Week Online Interviews Chomsky". Z Magazine. 23 February 2002. "The term libertarian as used in the US means something quite different from what it meant historically and still means in the rest of the world. Historically, the libertarian movement has been the anti-statist wing of the socialist movement. In the US, which is a society much more dominated by business, the term has a different meaning. It means eliminating or reducing state controls, mainly controls over private tyrannies. Libertarians in the US don't say let's get rid of corporations. It is a sort of ultra-rightism."
  24. Ward, Colin (2004). Anarchism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 62. "For a century, anarchists have used the word 'libertarian' as a synonym for 'anarchist', both as a noun and an adjective. The celebrated anarchist journal Le Libertaire was founded in 1896. However, much more recently the word has been appropriated by various American free-market philosophers."
  25. Graham, Robert, المحرر (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. 1. Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  26. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists".
  27. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (11 December 2008). "150 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  28. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (17 May 2017). "160 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. Anarchist FAQ. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  29. Rothbard, Murray (2009) [2007]. The Betrayal of the American Right (PDF). Mises Institute. د کتاب پاڼې 83. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-1610165013. One gratifying aspect of our rise to some prominence is that, for the first time in my memory, we, 'our side,' had captured a crucial word from the enemy. 'Libertarians' had long been simply a polite word for left-wing anarchists, that is for anti-private property anarchists, either of the communist or syndicalist variety. But now we had taken it over. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  30. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641[مړه لينکونه]. "For a long time, libertarian was interchangeable in France with anarchism but in recent years, its meaning has become more ambivalent. Some anarchists like Daniel Guérin will call themselves 'libertarian socialists', partly to avoid the negative overtones still associated with anarchism, and partly to stress the place of anarchism within the socialist tradition. Even Marxists of the New Left like E. P. Thompson call themselves 'libertarian' to distinguish themselves from those authoritarian socialists and communists who believe in revolutionary dictatorship and vanguard parties."
  31. Friedman, Jeffrey (1993). "What's Wrong with Libertarianism". Critical Review. 11 (3). p. 427.
  32. Sterba, James P. (October 1994). "From Liberty to Welfare". Ethics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell. 105 (1): 237–241.
  33. Partridge, Ernest (2004). "With Liberty and Justice for Some". In Zimmerman, Michael; Callicott, Baird; Warren, Karen; Klaver, Irene; Clark, John. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology (4th ed.). Pearson. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  34. Wolff, Jonathan (22 October 2006). Libertarianism, Utility, and Economic Competition. Virginia Law Review. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130112210848/http://www.virginialawreview.org/content/pdfs/92/1605.pdf. Retrieved 10 February 2020. 
  35. Fried, Barbara (2009). The Progressive Assault on Laissez Faire: Robert Hale and the First Law and Economics Movement. Harvard University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 50. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0674037304. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  36. Bruenig, Matt (28 October 2013). "Libertarians Are Huge Fans of Economic Coercion". Demos. د اصلي آرشيف څخه پر ۱۸ فبروري ۲۰۱۹ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۹ اگسټ ۲۰۱۶. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  37. Bruenig, Matt (17 November 2013). "Libertarians are Huge Fans of Initiating Force". Demos. د اصلي آرشيف څخه پر ۱۵ ډيسمبر ۲۰۱۸ باندې. د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۹ اگسټ ۲۰۱۶. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  38. Fried, Barbara (2009). The Progressive Assault on Laissez Faire: Robert Hale and the First Law and Economics Movement. Harvard University Press. د کتاب پاڼې 50. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0674037304. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  39. Liu, Eric; Hanauer, Nick (7 May 2016). "Complexity Economics Shows Us Why Laissez-Faire Economics Always Fails". Evonomics. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  40. Matthew, Schneider-Mayerson (2015). Peak Oil: Apocalyptic Environmentalism and Libertarian Political Culture. Chicago. OCLC 922640625. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0226285573. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  41. Lester, J. C. (22 October 2017). "New-Paradigm Libertarianism: a Very Brief Explanation". PhilPapers. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  42. Rothbard, Murray (1 March 1971). "The Left and Right Within Libertarianism". WIN: Peace and Freedom Through Nonviolent Action. 7 (4): 6–10. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  43. Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism', and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  44. Marshall, Peter (2008). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. London: Harper Perennial. p. 565. "The problem with the term 'libertarian' is that it is now also used by the Right. [...] In its moderate form, right libertarianism embraces laissez-faire liberals like Robert Nozick who call for a minimal State, and in its extreme form, anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard and David Friedman who entirely repudiate the role of the State and look to the market as a means of ensuring social order".
  45. Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1006. کينډۍ:ISBN.
  46. Newman 2010, p. 53 "It is important to distinguish between anarchism and certain strands of right-wing libertarianism which at times go by the same name (for example, Murray Rothbard's anarcho-capitalism). There is a complex debate within this tradition between those like Robert Nozick, who advocate a 'minimal state', and those like Rothbard who want to do away with the state altogether and allow all transactions to be governed by the market alone. From an anarchist perspective, however, both positions—the minimal state (minarchist) and the no-state ('anarchist') positions—neglect the problem of economic domination; in other words, they neglect the hierarchies, oppressions, and forms of exploitation that would inevitably arise in laissez-faire 'free' market. [...] Anarchism, therefore, has no truck with this right-wing libertarianism, not only because it neglects economic inequality and domination, but also because in practice (and theory) it is highly inconsistent and contradictory. The individual freedom invoked by right-wing libertarians is only narrow economic freedom within the constraints of a capitalist market, which, as anarchists show, is no freedom at all.
  47. Long, Joseph. W (1996). "Toward a Libertarian Theory of Class". Social Philosophy and Policy. 15 (2): 310. "When I speak of 'libertarianism' [...] I mean all three of these very different movements. It might be protested that LibCap [libertarian capitalism], LibSoc [libertarian socialism] and LibPop [libertarian populism] are too different from one another to be treated as aspects of a single point of view. But they do share a common—or at least an overlapping—intellectual ancestry."
  48. Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1006. کينډۍ:ISBN. "There exist three major camps in libertarian thought: right-libertarianism, socialist libertarianism, and left-libertarianism; the extent to which these represent distinct ideologies as opposed to variations on a theme is contested by scholars."
  49. William Belsham, "Essays", printed for C. Dilly, 1789; original from the University of Michigan, digitized 21 May 2007.
  50. William Belsham (1752–1827). The Information Philosopher. El primer uso de la palabra se encuentra en el primer ensayo llamado On Liberty and Necessity (1789): "Or where is the difference between the Libertarian, who says that the mind chooses the motive; and the Necessarian, who asserts that the motive determines the mind; if the volition be the necessary result of all the previous circumstances?"
  51. Definition of «libertarian» in Merriam-Webster Dictionary. First Known Use of libertarian: 1789, in the meaning defined at sense 1.
  52. Jared Sparks, Collection of Essays and Tracts in Theology, from Various Authors, with Biographical and Critical Notices, publicado por Oliver Everett, 13 Cornhill, 1824 (ver, Writings of Dr. Cogan, 205).
  53. Graham, Robert, المحرر (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. 1. Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  54. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists".
  55. Déjacque, Joseph (1857). "De l'être-humain mâle et femelle – Lettre à P.J. Proudhon" (in French).
  56. Mouton, Jean Claude. "Le Libertaire, Journal du mouvement social" (په فرانسیسی ژبه کي). د لاسرسي‌نېټه ۱۶ جولای ۲۰۱۹. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  57. Woodcock, George (1962). Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. Meridian Books. p. 280. "He called himself a "social poet," and published two volumes of heavily didactic verse—Lazaréennes and Les Pyrénées Nivelées. In New York, from 1858 to 1861, he edited an anarchist paper entitled Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social, in whose pages he printed as a serial his vision of the anarchist Utopia, entitled L'Humanisphére."
  58. Goodway, David (2006). Anarchist Seeds Beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 4. "'Libertarian' and 'libertarianism' are frequently employed by anarchists as synonyms for 'anarchist' and 'anarchism', largely as an attempt to distance themselves from the negative connotations of 'anarchy' and its derivatives. The situation has been vastly complicated in recent decades with the rise of anarcho-capitalism, 'minimal statism', and an extreme right-wing laissez-faire philosophy advocated by such theorists as Rothbard and Nozick and their adoption of the words 'libertarian' and 'libertarianism'. It has therefore now become necessary to distinguish between their right libertarianism and the left libertarianism of the anarchist tradition".
  59. Nettlau, Max (1996). A Short History of Anarchism (په انګلیسي ژبه کي). London: Freedom Press. د کتاب پاڼې 162. OCLC 37529250. د کتاب نړيواله کره شمېره 978-0900384899. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  60. Graham, Robert, المحرر (2005). Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. 1. Montreal: Black Rose Books. §17. الوسيط |CitationClass= تم تجاهله (مساعدة)
  61. Marshall, Peter (2009). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. p. 641. "The word 'libertarian' has long been associated with anarchism and has been used repeatedly throughout this work. The term originally denoted a person who upheld the doctrine of the freedom of the will; in this sense, Godwin was not a 'libertarian', but a 'necessitarian'. It came however to be applied to anyone who approved of liberty in general. In anarchist circles, it was first used by Joseph Déjacque as the title of his anarchist journal Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York in 1858. At the end of the last century, the anarchist Sebastien Faure took up the word, to stress the difference between anarchists and authoritarian socialists".
  62. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (11 December 2008). "150 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  63. Bookchin, Murray; Biehl, Janet (1997). The Murray Bookchin Reader. Cassell. p. 170 کينډۍ:ISBN.
  64. Hicks, Steven V.; Shannon, Daniel E. (2003). The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Blackwell Pub. p. 612.
  65. "Anarchism". In Gaus, Gerald F.; D'Agostino, Fred, eds. (2012). The Routledge Companion to Social and Political Philosophy. p. 227.
  66. Carlson, Jennifer D. (2012). "Libertarianism". In Miller, Wilburn R., ed. The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America. London: Sage Publications. p. 1006. کينډۍ:ISBN. "There exist three major camps in libertarian thought: right-libertarianism, socialist libertarianism, and left-libertarianism. [...] [S]ocialist libertarians [...] advocate for the simultaneous abolition of both government and capitalism."
  67. The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective (17 May 2017). "160 years of Libertarian". Anarchist Writers. Anarchist FAQ. Retrieved 31 January 2020.